УСМАНОВА А Р УМБEРТО ЭКО — ПАРАДОКСЫ ИНТEРПРEТАЦИИ МН ПРОПИЛEИ 2000 200 С 4

 152  anee e ia i?aaiaoeno, oi ii?aaaeaiii — i?aaiaoee. Anee y ii­eo?a? naenoaeuiia oaiaeaoai?aiea io ?oaiey ii?iia?aoe?an­eie eieae, y ia eniieuco? aa, iineieueo aey oiai, ?oiau ?ac­aeou iie naenoaeuiua oaioacee, y aie?ai aue naiaioe?anee eioa?i?aoe?iaaou aa auneacuaaiey. Iai?ioea, anee y caaeyau­aa? a Yeaiaiou Yaeeeaa eeou ca oai, ?oiau caee??eou, ?oi aa aaoi? aue scotophiliac, iaa??eiue aano?aeoiuie ia?acaie, oi ii?ii neacaou, ?oi y eniieuciaae yoo eieao, oae eae y ioeacae­ny io naiaioe?aneie eioa?i?aoaoee aa ii?aaaeaiee e oai?ai»20.  Iineieueo a aaenoaeoaeuiinoe ieacuaaaony, ?oi ii?oe ia­aicii?ii ii?aaaeeou e?eoa?ee enoeiiie eioa?i?aoaoee (a aa ioee?ee oae?a io eniieuciaaiey) oaenoa, iinoieueo Yei i?aa­eaaaao ?anno?aaou ad hoc e i?eaaaioou e i?eioeio oaeuneoeoe?oaiinoe ei?iuo eioa?i?aoaoee, i?eieiay ca iniiao i?ei­oei Iiiia?a, niaeanii eioi?iio ia nouanoaoao i?aaee, ?oiau onoaiiaeou «enoeiiinou» eioa?i?aoaoee, iaiaei eae ieieioi ii?ii iaeoe i?aaeei aey onoaiiaeaiey «ei?iuo» eioa?i?aoa­oee. Yoi i?aaeei aeaneo, ?oi «aioo?aiiyy niaeaniaaiiinou oae­noa aie?ia auou i?eiyoa a ea?anoaa ia?aiao?a aai eioa?i?aoa­oee»21. Ai anyeii neo?aa, eeou naa?ea caee??aiea ?eoaoaey n oaenoii eae nayciie oaeinoiinou?, ii?ii aieacaou, ?oi aai intentio opens aa?ii. Yoa iuneu ainoaoi?ii a?aaiyy e ainoiaeo e Aaaonoeio (I o?enoeaineie aieo?eia): e?aay eioa?i?aoa­oey, eana?uayny aaiiiai o?aaiaioa oaenoa, ii?ao auou i?e­aieaia, anee iia iiaoaa??aaaony, e iaiai?io — aie?ia auou ioaa?aiooa, anee i?ioeai?a?eo a?oaei ?anoyi oiai ?a oaenoa.  Eoae, a oai?aoe?aneii ieaia o?oaii naaa i?aanoaaeou ia­eee noaiaa?oiue iaai? oi?iaeuiuo e?eoa?eaa aey naeaeoee «i?aaeeuiuo» e «iai?aaeeuiuo» eioa?i?aoaoee. Iaiaei Yei ?an­n?eouaaao ia naiaai ?iaa eoeuoo?iue aa?aeieci: iaeioi?ua eioa?i?aoaoee ieacuaa?ony aieaa onoie?eauie e inoa?ony cia­?eiuie aey ?eoaoaeuneiai niiauanoaa, a oi a?aiy eae a?oaea caauaa?ony e oai naiui ieacuaa?ony ia?ecianiiniaiuie22.  A 1990 aiao Yei aue i?eaeaoai a Eaia?ea?, aaa ninoiyeanu aai aeneonney n ?e?a?aii ?i?oe, A?iiaoaiii Eaeea?ii e E?e­noei A?oe-?ioc23. Auae?ay oaio naieo oaiia?ianeeo naieia?ia,  20 Eco U. «Intentio Lectoris: The State of the Art». ?. 57.  21 Ibid. ?. 60.  22 Ni.: Collini S. «Introduction: Interpretation terminable and interminable», in Eco U. Interpretation and overinterpretation. ?. 16.  21 Ibid.  153  Yei niaeaneeny ii?aaaeeou eee, oi?iaa, ecei?eou nai? iice­oe? ii i?iaeaia oaenooaeuiiai niunea, a oae?a aicii?iinoae e i?aaaeia eioa?i?aoaoee aieaa a?oeeoee?iaaiiui ia?acii. Au?a?ay naie i?ioano i?ioea oiai, ?oi aio i?aanoaaeyaony eae eca?auaiiay oi?ia eaae iaia?aie?aiiiai naieicena, a naieo eaeoeyo ii ?anniao?eaaao oaeue ?ya niiniaia ia?aie?aiey eioa?i?aoaoee e naie e?eoa?ee i?eaieaiinoe yoeo niiniaia, oaaeyy iniaia aieiaiea oai neo?ayi, eioi?ua ii ioi?aanoaey­ao n oaiiiaiii «aeia?eioa?i?aoaoee».  A ia?aie eaeoee ii aiaeece?oao «aa?io?» i?iaeaio iienea nae?aoiuo niuneia a eiioaenoa caiaaiie eioaeeaeooaeuiie en­oi?ee. Niune yoiai yeneo?na a enoi?e? aa?iaoe?aneeo eiioai­oee e eaae aiinoeoecia ninoieo i?a?aa anaai a oii, ?oiau aie­naou nia?aiaiiua oai?ee aeia?eioa?i?aoaoee a iiiaiaaeiao? o?aaeoe? ycioa?e?aneeo o?aiee ni naienoaaiiui e oai e a?o­aei oai?eyi eioa?i?aoaoee aieaciaiiui iiaic?aieai e i?a­aeaiui cia?aieyi oaenoa (oi, ?oi iia?acoiaaaaony caanu iia eaoaai?eae ca?aaiai niunea).  Oaeinoaaiiia ciaiea, «oianeaaiaaiiia» aa?iaoenoaie io aa?­aa?neeo ??aoia, i?aanoaaeyei oieaa?noi eae iaei ia?iiiue ca?eaeuiue cae, aaa ea?aay aauu io?a?aao e iaicia?aao ana a?oaea. Oieaa?naeuiay neiiaoey iaiin?aanoaaiii auoaeaao ec eaae ai?anoaaiiie yiaiaoee, enoiee eioi?ie e?i?ony a Aae­iii e ioeoaa aa?ao ia?aei i?ioeai?a?ea. «?aeiaa?aneee ycue ?ai aieaa aaoniuneai e iieeaaeaioai, ?ai aieaa eniieucoao neiaieu e iaoaoi?u, oai aieaa ii ieacuaaaony i?eniiniaeai aey eiaiiaaiey Aaeiiai, a eioi?ii niaiaaa?o ana i?ioeaiii­ei?iinoe. Ii oai, aaa oi??anoaoao niaiaaaiea i?ioeaiiiei?­iinoae, oai eieeaine?oao i?eioei oi?aanoaa. Tout se tient»24.  A ?acoeuoaoa eioa?i?aoaoey ieacuaaaony aaneiia?iie. Ii­iuoea iaia?o?eou iineaai?? iainii?eio? enoeio aaaao e ii­noiyiiiio oneieucaie? niunea. ?anoaiea iienuaaaony ia a oa?­ieiao aai ii?oieiae?aneeo e ooieoeiiaeuiuo oa?aeoa?enoee, ii ia iniiaa iiaiaey, ionou aa?a e iaiieiiai, n a?oaei yea­iaioii einiina. Anee iii ianeieuei iaiiieiaao eaeo?-eeai ?anou oaea, oi, neaaiaaoaeuii, iii ionueaao e yoiio oaeo. Ii ?anou oaea eiaao naia cia?aiea, eai iia naycaia ni caacaaie, a iineaaiea iaaaeaiu niuneii iinoieueo, iineieueo iie eioa?-  24 Eco U. «Interpretation and history», in Eco U. Interpretation and overinterpretation. ?. 32.  154  i?aoe?o?ony a oa?ieiao iocueaeuiiai ?yaa, a yoi, a nai? i?a­?aau, iaiiieiaao iai ia aiaaeuneie ea?a?oee e oae ai aanei­ia?iinoe. Ea?aay aauu, caiiay eee iaaaniay, ne?uaaao a naaa iaeo? oaeio. Anyeee ?ac, eiaaa yoa oaeia ?ane?uaaaony, iia aaaao e a?oaiio nae?aoo aieiou ai iineaaiae oaeiu. Iineaaiyy ?a oaeia aa?iaoe?aneie o?aaeoee ninoieo a oii, ?oi ana nouaa anou oaeia, oi anou aa?iaoe?aneay oaeia ionoa…25  Aa?iaoe?aneia ciaiea, ioia?aao Yei, ia en?acei a aiiaeao enoi?ee, iii ia?a?eei o?enoeaineee ?aoeiiaeeci, aieacuaaa­oee nouanoaiaaiea Ainiiaa n iiiiuu? ?anno?aaiee, iniiaai­iuo ia i?eioeiao neeeiaenoeee. Iii i?iaie?aei nouanoai­aaou eae ia?aeiaeuiue eoeuoo?iue oaiiiai e n?aae aeoeie­eia, e eaaaaeenoia, e a eiia n?aaiaaaeiaiai iaiieaoiiecia. A yiioo ?aiannaina ai Oei?aioee Corpus Hermeticum — yoi ii­?i?aaiea yeeeiecia II aaea — aue aini?eiyo eae naeaaoaeu­noai i?aiu a?aaiaai ciaiey — a?aiai Iienay. Nenoaia auea ia?ainiuneaia Ieei aaeea Ie?aiaieie, Ia?neeei Oe?eii, Eiaaiiii ?aeoeeiii, oi anou ?aiannainiuie iaiieaoiieeaie e o?enoeaineeie eaaaaeenoaie. N oao ii? aa?iaoe?aneay ii­aaeu oi?i?eea naie iiceoee a nia?aiaiiie eoeuoo?a, nouanoaoy ia?ao iaaeae e iaoeie.  Enoi?ey yoiai aic?i?aaiey aiaieuia i?ioeai?a?eaa: ni­a?aiaiiay enoi?eia?aoey aieacuaaao, ?oi aia aa?iaoecia ia­aicii?ii iiiyou oaiiiai Ia?aoaeuna eee Aaeeeay. Aa?iaoe­?aneia ciaiea aaioiiaeyei O?yinena Ayeiia, Eiia?ieea, Eai­ea?a, Iu?oiia, e nia?aiaiiay nenoaia ca?iaeeanu, inter alia, a aeaeiaa n eiee?anoaaiiie nenoaiie aa?iaoecia. A eiia?iii n?aoa aa?iaoe?aneay iiaaeu aiooaea iuneu i oii, ?oi ii?yaie oie­aa?noia, iienaiiue a?a?aneeie ?aoeiiaeenoaie, ii?ao auou eiui e ?oi aiieia aicii?ii ?ane?uou iiaua nayce e ioiioa­iey a yoii ie?a, ?oi iicaieeo ?aeiaaeo aeoeaii aicaaenoaiaaou ia i?e?iao e eciaiyou ii?yaie aauae. Ii yoi aeeyiea ?inei aianoa n oaa?aaieai a oii, ?oi ie? ia ii?ao auou iienai a oa?ieiao ea?anoaaiiie eiaeee, a oieuei eiee?anoaaiiie. Oae, ia?aaienaeuiui ia?acii aa?iaoeci niinianoaiaae noaiiaeaie? iiaiai i?ioeaieea — nia?aiaiiiai iao?iiai ?aoeiiaeecia26. Iiaue aa?iaoe?aneee e??aoeiiaeeci inoeeee?oao ia?ao ien­oeeaie e aeoeieeaie, n iaiie noi?iiu, e iiyoaie e oeeinioa-  25 Eco U. «Interpretation and history», in Eco U. Interpretation and overinterpretation. ?. 32. 26 Ibid. ?. 34.  155  ie, oaeeie, eae Aaoa, ?a?a? aa Ia?aaeu, Eaon, Oaeeeia, O?aio oii Aaaaa?, Oaeaaaaa?, ?ia, n a?oaie noi?iiu. Iaeiiao, ii iiaie? Yei, ia i?aanoaaeyao aieuoiai o?oaa oaeaaou yoi no?ai­eaiea e iinoiyiiiio oneieucaie? niunea ai iiiaeo iinoii­aa?ienoneeo eiioaioeyo. Aiaa?aiaiio? nouiinou aa?iaoe?an­eiai iiaoiaa a eaeiie?iie iiyoe?aneie oi?ia au?acee Iieu Aaea?e: Il i’o a pas de vrai sens d’un texte.  Aa?iaoeci e aiinoeoeci ionoeee aeoaieea ei?ie a nia?a­iaiiuo eoeuoo?iuo i?aeoeeao, e iioiio auei au iaaacuioa­?anii auyaeou, ?oi e aaeaao Oiaa?oi Yei, iaeioi?ua niaoeoe­?aneea ?a?ou «aa?iaoe?aneiai iiaoiaa e oaenoo»27.  — Oaeno — yoi ioe?uoue oieaa?noi, a eioi?ii eioa?i?aoa­oi? ii?ao ?ane?uou aaneiia?iua acaeiinayce.  — ?cue ia niiniaai oeiaeou oieeaeuiue e anaaaa nouanoai­aaaoee niune: iai?ioea, ooieoey ycuea ninoieo a oii, ?oiau iieacaou, ?oi oi, i ?ai iu ii?ai aiai?eou, yaeyaony anaai eeou niaiaaaieai i?ioeaiiiei?iinoae.  — ?cue io?a?aao iaaaaeaaoiinou iunee: iaoa auoea-a-ie?a — yoi ia ?oi eiia, eae auoea, eeoaiiia o?ainoaiaaioaeuiiai niunea.  — E?aie oaeno, i?aoaiaoy ia ooaa??aaiea ?aai-oi iaiicia?­iiai — yoi oieaa?noi a ieieao??a, oi anou i?iecaaaaiea oeo­?ioiiiai Aaieo?aa.  — Nia?aiaiiue oaenooaeuiue aiinoeoeci oai ia iaiaa aanu­ia uaa?: anyeee, eoi a ninoiyiee iaaycaou iaia?aiey ?eoaoaey iaiinoe?eiui iaia?aieyi aaoi?a, ii?ao noaou Ubermensch, eioi?ue ciaao enoeio, a eiaiii oi, ?oi aaoi? ia ciae, ?oi ii oioae yoei neacaou, eai aianoi iaai aiai?eo ycue.  — Nianay oaeno — oi anou ia?aoiay io eee?cee iaee?anoao­?uaai a iai yeiau niunea e iniciaie? aaneiia?iinoe cia?a­iee, ?eoaoaeu aie?ai iiaic?aaaou, ?oi ea?aay no?i?ea caee?­?aao eiie, oaeiue niune; neiaa, aianoi oiai ?oiau niiauaou, ne?uaa?o a naaa iaauneacuaaaiia; ?anou e oaaea ?eoaoae?, ei­oi?ue a ninoiyiee iiiyou, ?oi oaeno ii?ao neacaou ?oi oaiaii, enee??ay oi, ?oi eiae a aeao aai aaoi?; eae oieuei eneiiue niune iaia?o?ai, iu o?a oaa?aiu, ?oi yoi ia iiaeeiiue niune, iineieueo iiaeeiiue ea?eo aeoa?a e oae aaeaa, e oiio iiaia­iia; i?iea?aaoei ieacuaaaony oio, eoi caaa?oaao yoio i?i­oann, aiai?y: «? iiiye».  27 Eco U. «Interpretation and history», in Eco U. Interpretation and overinterpretation. P. 39—40.  156  — Iiaeeiiue ?eoaoaeu — yoi oio, eoi iniciaao, ?oi aaei­noaaiiay oaeia oaenoa — yoi ionoioa.  Yoio ia?a?aiu ii?ao iieacaouny ceie ea?eeaoo?ie, eioi­?o? Yei aa?anoao iaeaieaa ?aaeeaeuiui ?aoaioeaiui eiioai­oeyi. Iaiaei ea?eeaoo?u ?anoi ieacuaa?ony i?aiu i?aaaiii­aiaiuie ii?o?aoaie. Yei ia niiiaaaaony, ?oi nouanoao?o nii­niau ia?aie?aiey iioaioeaeuii aaneiia?iiai eiee?anoaa eioa?i?aoaoee. Eia?a iu ?eneoai ieacaouny a neooaoee, eioi­?o? ia?aaienaeuiui ia?acii ioa?aeoa?eciaae Ia?aaiiei Oa?­iaiaan: «A yoii ie?a ionoonoaoao oae iiiai aauae, ?oi anee au ia oaaoaei aua ?aai-oi, oi aey yoiai o?a iao ianoa»28.  N ii?aaaeaiiie oi?ee c?aiey ana, ?oi oaiaii, ii?ao ni­aiauaou a naaa ioiioaiey aiaeiaee e iiaiaey n ?ai oaiaii aua. ?acieoa ia?ao cai?iaie e ia?aiieaaeuiie eioa?i?aoaoe­ae ninoieo, niaeanii Yei, a oii, ?oiau i?eciaou ia?aie?ai­iinou yoeo iiaiaee, a ia auaiaeou ec ieieiaeuiiai noianoaa iaeneioi aicii?iuo ioiioaiee. Niiiaiea naii ii naaa aua ia yaeyaony iaoieiaeae: e aaoaeoea e o?aiue ai?aaa iiaic?a­aaou, ?oi iaeioi?ua i?eciaee — i?aaeaiua, ii ea?oueany aoi­?inoaiaiiuie — iiaoo oeacuaaou ia ia?oi aieaa aa?iia, ii iaiaa i?aaeaiia. Ia yoii caeiiiii iniiaaiee iie i?aaeaaa?o aeiioacu, eioi?ua iiaea?ao i?iaa?ea. Aa?iaoe?aneee ?a na­ieicen caoae neeoeii aaeaei eiaiii ii aeia eioa?i?aoaoea­iuo i?aeoee iiaic?aiey. Ecauoie e?aiiuonoaa aaaao e ia?a­ioaiea cia?eiinoe niaiaaaiee, eioi?ua iauyniy?ony a?oaeie niiniaaie29.  Ai aoi?ie eaeoee Yei aenoaioe?oaony aua a aieuoae noaia­ie io nia?aiaiiuo oi?i yoiai aeneo?na, ianoaeaay ia oii, ?oi iu a ninoiyiee auyaeou «aeia?eioa?i?aoaoe?» aaiiiai oaenoa, ia aieacuaay i?e yoii, ?oi nouanoaoao eeou aaeinoaaiii aic­ii?iay enoeiiay eioa?i?aoaoey. A ea?anoaa iiaoaa??aaiey aa?­iinoe naiaai oacena ii aiaeece?oao ?ya i?eia?ia, a oii ?enea eioa?i?aoaoe? Aaioa, i?aaei?aiio? a XIX aaea Aaa?eyea ?innaooe, e niinia i?i?oaiey iaiiai ec noeoioai?aiee Aoanai?oa aia?eeaineei e?eoeeii A?aoo?e Oa?oiaiii. A yoii aiaeeca ee??aao? ?ieu ea?aao iiiyoea «eioaioee oaenoa» — intentio opens eae iniiau auyaeaiey cia?aiey oaenoa. Yoi iiiyoea ia auio?aaao ian aica?auaouny e ?aiaa ioaa?aiooiio e aaenoae-  28 Oeo. ii: Eco U. Interpretation and overinterpretation. ?. 40.  29 Ibid. ?. 50.  157  oaeuii onoa?aaoaio iiiyoe? eioaioee aaoi?a, iaiaei iicai­eyao iai oaeaaou, eae yoio oaeoi? ia?aie?eaaao naiaiaio? ea?o eioaioee ?eoaoaey — intentio lectoris. I?e?iaa, noaoon e eaai­oeoeeaoey intentio operis n iaiaoiaeiinou? i?aaiieaaa?o ai­eaa no?iaia ii?aaaeaiea ianoa e ooieoee oaeeo eaoaai?ee eioa?i?aoaoeaiiai i?ioanna, eae yiie?e?aneee ?eoaoaeu, iia­?acoiaaaaiue ?eoaoaeu e ia?acoiaue ?eoaoaeu. Yei iieacu­aaao, ?oi eioaioey oaenoa ninoieo a i?iecaianoaa naiaai ia?ac­oiaiai ?eoaoaey, oi anou ?eoaoaey, niiniaiiai auyaeou niune, cai?ia?aiie?iaaiiue oaenoii; oaeei ia?acii ii?ii ?aaooe­?iaaou aaneiia?iia eiee?anoai aicii?iuo i?i?oaiee e ianeieu­eei eioa?i?aoaoeyi, i?aaoniio?aiiui naiei oaenoii.  Auyniaiea oiai, ?oi eiaiii «oioae neacaou» oaeno, yoi ana­aaa naiaai ?iaa ia?e. Ii ciaiea eiioaenoa iicaieyao oiaiu­oeou iaii?aaaeaiiinou yoie neooaoee30, i?e yoii eioaioee yi­ie?e?aneiai aaoi?a ia ea?a?o nouanoaaiiie ?iee. Oae, iai?e­ia?, ?oanoaeoaeuiue e ioaaonoaaiiue ?eoaoaeu ia aie?ai niaeoee?iaaou ia i?aaiao oiai, ?oi i?ienoiaeei a aieiaa aaoi­?a a iiiaio, eiaaa ii ienae naie oaeno, ii ii iaycai o?eouaaou ninoiyiea eaene?aneeo nenoai a yiioo, eiaaa aaiiue oaeno aue iaienai. Iai?eia?, anee Aoanai?o ienae A poet could not but be gay, yoi aua ia cia?eo, ?oi nia?aiaiiue ?eoaoaeu aie?ai ia­i?aiaiii eioa?i?aoe?iaaou yoi eae no?i?eo ec «Ieyeaiy»: a oo yiioo neiai gay aua ia eiaei naenoaeuiie eiiiioaoee, e i?e­ciaou yoio oaeo — cia?eo niioianoe aai n eoeuoo?iui e nioe­aeuiui ie?o?aieai iiyoa31. Ii?ii, eiia?ii, eniieuciaaou oaeno Aoanai?oa aey ia?iaee, aaau iieacaou, eae oaeno ii?ao auou i?i?eoai a ?acee?iuo eoeuoo?iuo eiioaenoao, ii anee iu oi­oei eioa?i?aoe?iaaou yoi noeoioai?aiea, oi iaycaiu ioianoenu n ii?oaieai e eoeuoo?iiio e eeiaaenoe?aneiio ie?o?aie? Aoanai?oa.  I?aaiiei?ei, ?oi aaiiue oaeno aue iaeaai a aooueea, eiaaa iu iaoiaeiny a iieiie iaecaanoiinoe ioiineoaeuii oiai, eoi e eiaaa ni?eiee aai. Ano?aoea a oaenoa neiai gay, iu aie­?iu niioianoe aai n inoaeuiui oaenoii e iiaoiaou, niaa?­?aony ee a iai eaeea-ieaoau iaiaee ia naenoaeuio? eioa?­i?aoaoe?, ?oiau oaaaeouny a iaoeo aiaaaeao ia i?aaiao ai-  30 Ni.: Eco U. «Overinterpreting texts», in Eco U. Interpretation and over-interpretation. ?. 63.  31 Eco U. «Between author and text», in Eco U. Interpretation and overinterpretation. ?. 68.  158  iinaenoaeuiie eiiiioaoee yoiai neiaa. Anee iu iaeaai oa­eia iiaoaa??aaiea, oi ii?ii naaeaou auaia i oii, ?oi oaeno iaienai ia ?iiaioeeii, a nia?aiaiiui iiyoii, eioi?ue eeou eieoe?iaae noeeu ?iiaioecia.  A?oaie aanuia iieacaoaeuiue i?eia?, aieacuaa?uee, eae aaciniiaaoaeuiu iiaoo auou eiiaaa iienee naa?ocia?aiey, caoeo?iaaiiiai a oaenoa, eioi?ia ia a ia?o ?aoeaue eioa?i?aoaoi? niiniaai ec iaai ecaea?u. Yei ia?auaaony e noeoioai?aie? Neeuaey eoaeuyineiai ?iiaioeea Eaiia?ae, iineaaiyy no?i?ea eioi?iai iaaiaeo ia iuneu, ?oi ana noe­oioai?aiea yaeyao niaie aiaa?aiio eiaie «Neeuaey» (salivi — Silvia). Iii?anoai e?eoeeia iia?a?eeaaee iaayc?eaia eniieu­ciaaiea aeaniie i. Caaaaoenu oaeie oaeu?, ii?ii e a naiii aaea iaeoe iii?anoai inaaaiaiaa?aii, anee iooaeeeaaouny io iunee, ?oi ian?anoiue aaoi? aue iaa??ei iuneu? ia?aaaou neaainou cao?aiey eiaie naiae aice?aeaiiie. Aiieia aiion­oeia oae?a iuneu, ?oi ?eoaoaeu eiaao i?aai ianea?aaouny yoei yooaeoii cao?aiey. Ii a yoio iiiaio, i?aainoa?aaaao Yei, i?ioann ?oaiey noaiiaeony aieaa iioi?ei ia terrain vague, aaa eioa?i?aoaoey e eniieuciaaiea eaoo ?oea ia ?oeo. E?eoa­?ee yeiiiie?iinoe caanu yaii ionoonoaoao. N a?oaie noi?i­iu, ii?ii i?aaiiei?eou, ?oi aaoi?, iaa??eiue cao?aieai eiaie, oeo?oao naie oaeno, nei?aa anaai, aanniciaoaeuii, oi anou ia neaaoy niciaoaeuiiio iaia?aie?.  Aey i?iaa?ee naiae aeiioacu Yei ia?auaaony e niiaoai a?oaiai «iaa??eiiai» aaoi?a — Iao?a?ee, ?uy e?aiau e Ea­o?a anai oi?ioi ecaanoia. Iiiyoii aac neia, ?oi ii o?a ec­aanoiiio iaoiao a aai oaenoao ii?ii iaia?o?eou aann?aoiia eiee?anoai inaaaiaiaa?aii eiaie Eao?u. Iaiaei aianoi yoi­ai Yei, ec e?aae e yenia?eiaioai, ?aoaao iieneaou aiaa?ai­iu eiaie Eao?u a noeoao Eaiia?ae e aiaa?aiiu Neeuaee — a iiycee Iao?a?ee. ?acoeuoao ieacuaaaony aanuia eioa?aniui, oioy a eiee?anoaaiiii ioiioaiee iaiaa aia?aoey?uei, ?oi iicaieyao Yei e?iiece?iaaou ii iiaiao aicii?iinoe iaia­?o?aiey aiaa?aiiu Neeuaee a oaenoa eoaeuyineie eiinoeoo­oee — iniaaiii iioiio, ?oi eoaeuyineee aeoaaeo i?aiu e?a­oie: a iai anaai 21 aoeaa. Iayeiiiie?iinou iiaiaiie eioa?i?aoaoee ninoieo a oii, ?oi ia nianai ynii, n eaeie oa­eu? Eaiia?ae noae au eniieuciaaou yoio yeeeienoe?aneee e ?aiian?aaiaaaeiaue i?eai e o?aoeou naia a?aaioaiiia a?aiy ia ecia?aoaiea nae?aoiuo niiauaiee. Oi, ?oi aiaeony aey  159  eioa?i?aoaoee De laudibus sanntaa ?aaaia Iaa?a, ia iiaoiaeo aey ?oaiey Eaiia?ae32.  Iiaiaiua neooaoee, iaiaei, iaaiayo ia iuneu, ?oi eiiaaa iaaaniieacii ni?ineou o yiie?e?aneiai aaoi?a (eioi?iio ii­nayuaia o?aouy eaeoey Yei), ?oi ii eiae a aeao neacaou, anee oaeiaie aua ?ea. Ia n oaeu? ocaeiieou oo eee eio? o?aeoiaeo (oai aieaa i?eciaou aaeinoaaiii eaaeoeiiie eioa?i?aoaoe? naiiai aaoi?a), a n oai, ?oiau i?iaiaeece?iaaou ?anoi?aaiey ia?ao eioaioeae aaoi?a e eioaioeae oaenoa. Yoi eiaei au ii­?aaaeaiiue eioa?an ia noieuei aey e?eoeee, neieuei a ?enoi oai?aoe?aneii ieaia.  A eiioa eiioia ii?ao noaouny, ?oi yiie?e?aneee aaoi? aua e oaenooaeuiue oai?aoee a iaiii eeoa (aiieia iiiyoii, eoi eiaaony a aeao a aaiiii neo?aa). Oiaaa aicii?iu aaa oeia ?a­aeoee. Eeai aaoi? aiai?eo «iao, y yoiai a aeao ia eiae, ii y niaeanai i?eciaou, ?oi «eiae a aeao» oaeno, e y aeaaiaa?ai ?e­oaoaeyi, eioi?ua ?ane?uee iia ia yoi aeaca», — eiaiii oae Yei, eae yiie?e?aneee aaoi?, io?aaae?iaae ia iaeioi?ua i?i­?oaiey naiaai ?iiaia a Caiaoeao ia iieyo «Eiaie ?icu». Eeai ii ii?ao neacaou neaao?uaa: «Aacioiineoaeuii e oiio oaeoo, ?oi y yoiai ia eiae a aeao, y n?eoa?, ?oi ?annoaeoaeuiue ?eoa­oaeu ia i?eiao iiaiaiie eioa?i?aoaoee, eai yoi cao?eo ia yei­iiie?ii»33.  A e?aii neo?aa yiie?e?aneee aaoi? ia ianao ioaaonoaaiii­noe ca ana aee?cee e aiaeiaee, eioi?ua iaia?o?eaa?o aai ?e­oaoaee. Nouanoaoao oaeno, e ii i?eaaao naiae eioa?i?aoaoee, e o?a ia aa?ii, ?oi eiaei a aeao aaoi?neia «?» (eioi?ia naii ii naaa i?iaeaia: eaao ee ?a?u i niciaoaeuiie ee?iinoe aaoi­?a, i aai Id, ia ea?a ycuea34). Oai oo?a aey aaoi?a, anee ii iaiaa i?iieoaoaeai, ?ai aai ?eoaoaeu, — e?aeo iiaoi?you Yei.  Oae, iai?eia?, eo?uaciinou neooaoee n caaeaaeai aai aoi?i­ai ?iiaia Iayoiee Ooei caee??aeanu a oii, ?oi ?an?aou Yei ia oi, ?oi aieuoeinoai ?eoaoaeae i?a?aa anaai iiaoiaao ia ecia­?aoaiee Eaiia Ooei, ia ii?aaaaeenu. Yei ?oanoaiaae, ?oi ecaa­?aou iaaieuiuo aee?cee ia Ieoaey Ooei ia oaanony, iniaaiii a nayce n oai ?oi Ooei ienae i ia?aaeaia iiaiaee, a ia?niia?e Yei iaa??eiu iieneii oaeiauo. Iiaiaiia oiicaee??aiea ea­?eo ia iiaa?oiinoe, e ii iieaaae, ?oi eneooaiiua ?eoaoaee n?aco  32 Eco U. «Between author and text». ?. 72.  33 Ibid. ?. 73.  34 Ibid. ?. 81.  160  ?a ioaa?aioo yoio eioa?i?aoaoeaiue oia35. Oai ia iaiaa iiiaea ?eoaoaee iiaaee naay «iaaaaeaaoii» caiuneo aaoi?a.  Eiiiaioe?oy eaeoee Yei, ?i?oe eiioaio?e?oao aieiaiea ia ?acee?ee ia?ao eioa?i?aoaoeae e eniieuciaaieai oaenoa. ?i?oe aeaeo a eeoa Yei nioiaa?eua ii «i?aaiaoenoneiio i?i­a?anno», eiay a aeao oo noaae?, ia eioi?ie ana eioa?i?aoaoee (aee??ay eaaioeoeeaoe? naay n i?aaiaoeciii) ioaieaa?ony niaeanii eo yooaeoeaiinoe eae eino?oiaiou aey ainoe?aiey eaeie-eeai oaee, a ia ii ioiioaie? e oiio, ianeieuei i?a­aeeuii iie iienuaa?o naie iauaeo36. Oai ia iaiaa, ii aai i?e­ciaie?, ?oanoai oiaa?euanoaa ia?aei iieeaaou aai, eiaaa ii iciaeiieeny ni noaouae Yei Intentio Lectaris, a eioi?ie oio ianoaeaaao ia ?acee?aiee iiiyoee eioa?i?aoe?iaaiea e eniieu­ciaaiea oaenoa. I?aiu niiieoaeuiie ea?aony aio oae?a eaoa­ai?ey nayciinoe oaenoa, iineieueo e?aie oaeno ia?aoaao yoo nayciinou a i?ioanna eioa?i?aoaoee — oi anou aanuia i?iaea­iaoe?ii iieaaaou, ?oi iia eiaeanu ecia?aeuii. Neaaoy i?aaiaoe­noneiio io?eoaie? ?acee?aiey ia?ao iaia?o?aieai iauaeoa e aai nicaaieai, ?i?oe n?eoaao, ?oi e a neooaoee n intentio operis e intentio lectoris iu iiiaaaai a eiaooeo, oae eae intentio aicieeaao eeou a iiiaio, eiaaa iu ?eoaai oaeno (e oiio ?a eiay ii?aaaeaiiua i?e?eiu aey yoiai).  ?i?oe ia niaeanai n a?aoiaioii Yei ii iiaiao nouanoaiaa­iey iaeiae «nouiinoe» oaenoa. Aianoi oiai ?oiau caieiaouny iieneaie oiai, ?oi oaeno ?aaeuii «eiae a aeao neacaou», ?i?oe i?aaeaaaao enneaaiaaou neooaoee eniieuciaaiey ?acee?iuo ii­?aaaeaiee oaenoa niaeanii oaeyi eioa?i?aoaoi?ia. Ii n?eoaao, ?oi aia caaeneiinoe io iaoaai ?aeaiey eioaeeaeooaeuiay en­oi?ey ninoieo eae ?ac a oii, ?oi iaie e oa ?a oaenou eniieuci­aaeenu ii-?aciiio, n iiceoee ?acee?iuo eioa?i?aoaoeaiuo nei­aa?ae — niaeanii oaee «iieuciaaoaeae», a ia iioiio, ?oi yoiai «oioae» nai oaeno. Oai ia iaiaa ?i?oe inoaaeyao iaauyniai­iui aii?in, ii?aio e eaeei ia?acii oaenou, eeoaiiua «nou­iinoe» e iienuaaaiua oai niiniaii, eioi?ue niioaaonoaoao oaee iieuciaaoaey, ana ?a niiniaiu ieacuaaou nii?ioeaeaiea i?e iiiuoea iia?eieou eo yoei oaeyi e a eiia?iii n?aoa eciaieou i?ei?eoaou e caaa?e naieo ?eoaoaeae.  A?iiaoai Eaeea?, ecaanoiue eeoa?aoo?iaaa, aaoi? ?yaa eiea, iinayuaiiuo no?oeoo?aeecio e iinono?oeoo?aeecio, aa?aony  35 Eco U. «Between author and text». ?. 83.  161  caueoeou i?aaa «aeia?eioa?i?aoaoee». I?e yoii ii ino?ioiii caia?aao, ?oi Yei naieie aeanoyueie eeoa?aoo?iuie e oai?a­oe?aneeie ?aaioaie iaaieuii niinianoaiaae oneeaie? eioa?a­na e ianoie?eaiio aa?iaoe?aneiio iieneo nae?aoiuo eiaia, ei­oi?ue ii e?eoeeoao a naieo eaeoeyo. Aieaa oiai, ii iieaaaao, ?oi oae iacuaaaiay aeia?eioa?i?aoaoey (overinterpretation) ia naiii aaea ii?ao ieacaouny oaiiiaiii iaainoaoi?iie eioa?­i?aoaoee (underinterpretation). N ?ai Eaeea? oae?a ia ii?ao niaeaneouny,oae yoi i?eciaiea ee??aaie ?iee intentio opens, ?oi iicaieyao caeeaeieou iaeioi?ua i?i?oaiey eae i?iyaea­iey «aeia?eioa?i?aoaoee», iineieueo iie n naiiai ia?aea ia­?aie?eaa?o aicii?iinoe iioaioeaeuiuo ioe?uoee ioiineoaeuii oaenoa.  A aieaa iauai ieaia Eaeea? aeaeo eaaaeuiie neooaoe?, eiaaa oaeno ia iaaycuaaao naie aii?inu ?eoaoae?: eioa?aniaa ociaou oi, ?oi oaeno aiana ia eiae a aeao, e ?eoaoaeuneea ioaa­ou ia aie?iu auou ecia?aeuii ia?aie?aiu aai eioaioeyie. Aic­?a?ay ia oacen Yei ia yenieooaoee aaeiino?oeoeaenoaie iiiy­oey «iaia?aie?aiiue naieicen», Eaeea? n?eoaao, ?oi aaeiino­?oeoeaeci i?eciaao eaa? ia?aie?aiiinoe niuneia oaenoa aai eiioaenoii (e, oaeei ia?acii, cia?aiey oaenoa a aaiiii eii­oaenoa ia?aie?aiu), a?oaia aaei, ?oi naie eiioaenou eioa?­i?aoaoee iiaoo auou aaneiia?iu. E oiio ?a ii iieaaaao, ?oi oai?aoe?aneay ?aoeaeney i ooieoeiie?iaaiee e i?e?iaa oae­noa — eaeei ia?acii iiaanoaiaaiey ieacuaa?o ii?aaaeaiiua yooaeou ia nai? aoaeoi?e? eee eae ?ai? aaoa?ieie?oao i?e­aaiey ioaeeee — naia ii naaa yaeyaony i?aiu iieaciui enoi?­ieeii aey eieoee?iaaiey iiauo aii?inia. Ii yoie i?e?eia ii ia i?eieiaao noi?iio ?i?oe, i?aaeaaa?uaai iai oaiaeaoai­?eouny «eniieuciaaieai» oaenoia, inoaaea a noi?iia i?iaeaio niiniaa ii?i?aaiey cia?aiey. A caee??aiea a ieeo a?aoiai­oai ?i?oe eee Noyiee Oeoa ii aiai?eo, ?oi «oaeu oai?ee eeoa­?aoo?u eae aenoeieeiu ninoieo eae ?ac a oii, ?oiau iiiuoaou­ny ?acaeou nenoaiaoe?aneia aeaaiea naieioe?aneeo iaoaieciia eeoa?aoo?u». Aeaaaie?aneia eeoa?aoo?iaaaaiea iaiuneeii aia eoeuoeae?iaaiey iiceoee «oaeaeaiey ia?aa ea?ie oaenoia e eo eioa?i?aoaoeae»37.  36 Ni.: Rorty R. «The pragmatist’s progress». ?. 92. 37 Ni.: Culler J. «In defence of overinterpretation», in Eco U. Interpretation and overinterpretation. ?. 117—123.  162  Ia?acoiaue ?eoaoaeu e ia?acoiaue aaoi?: ano?a?a a «ia??aoeaiuo eanao»  «Ean» — yoi iaoaoi?a iiaanoaiaaoaeuiiai oaenoa. Ii?ii auei au oae?a aniiiieou iaoaoi?o Ai?oana: aai «ean» — yoi «naa ?anoiayueony o?iiie». Aey Yei n?aaiaiea ?iiaia n eanii eia­ao aiieia ii?aaaeaiiue niune: ean — yoi ianoi aey ioauoa e i?iaoeie, aaa ea?aue ii?aaaeyao naiinoiyoaeuii, eoaa iai?a­aeouny, eniieucoy aey yoiai o?a nouanoao?uea, i?iei?aiiua a?oaeie ai?i?ee eee i?ieeaauaay nianoaaiio?. A iiaanoaiaa­oaeuiii oaenoa ?eoaoaeu iinoiyiii auio?aai eneaou nai? o?i­ieieo, ?oeiaianoaoynu iaeioi?uie e?eoa?eyie. Aeaaiui e?e­oa?eai auai?a yaeyaony «?acoiiinou», «i?eaieaiinou», ?oi a aaenoaeoaeuiinoe aiiau i?aaiieaaaao aiaeeyoe? e ca?aaiio niuneo. Oioy ianeieuei i?aaiia?ii ooaa??aaiea i oii, ?oi iiaanoaiaaoaeuiue oaeno ii?ao auou i?ieioa?i?aoe?iaai ni­aeanii eiaeea ca?aaiai niunea? A eae a oaeii neo?aa auou n aiai?yuei aieeii, eioi?iai ii?ii ano?aoeou a oaeii eano e eioi?ue n oi?ee c?aiey ca?aaiai niunea ia nouanoaoao? Aey ioaaoa ia yoe e a?oaea aii?inu Yei i?aaeaaaao ia?aou n enoia­iuo iiiyoee — oaenooaeuiuo no?aoaaee: ia?acoiaiai ?eoaoaey e ia?acoiaiai aaoi?a.  Eae Yei oeacuaae aua a ?iee ?eoaoaey, ia?acoiaue ?eoa­oaeu — yoi ?eoaoaeu, cai?ia?aiie?iaaiiue oaenoii, oi anou ?eoaoaeu, i?eieia?uee i?aaeea ea?u, iaaycuaaaiua aio oae­noii. Oae, anee oaeno ia?eiaaony ni neia «Eiaaa-oi…», «?ee aa aue», oi i?aaiieaaaaony, ?oi ia?acoiaue ?eoaoaeu o?a ec­a?ai oaenoii — nei?aa anaai ii aa?aniaai aaoyi eee oai, eoi niaeanai ia a?aiy caauou i ca?aaii niunea.  Ii eoi nicaaao ia?acoiaiai ?eoaoaey? A ia?aii i?eaee?a­iee ii?ii ioaaoeou: yiie?e?aneee aaoi? — oio naiue ia?ni­ia?, noauaa eioi?iai Yei niaa?oaiii aac?acee?ia. Iaiaei oa­i?aoeee ia??aoeaiiai aiaeeca iaiaiie?aoii oeacuaaee ia i?a­aeaiinou ianiaiaaaiey a oaenoa aieinia aaoi?a e ia??aoi?a: iaeaiue ?eoaoaeu i?eieiaao iiaanoaiaaiea io ia?aiai eeoa ca ene?aiiaa e aiaa?eoaeuiia ia?auaiea e iaio aaoi?a, oiaaa eae «?» ia oi?aanoaaiii Aaoi?o e ?ai?acaioe?oao eeou iiaanoai­aaoaeuiue aiein ia??aoi?a.  163  Iioiio «nicaaoaeai» naiaai ?eoaoaey, ii iiaie? Yei, ii­?ao auou ia iaiaa ia?acoiaue aaoi?. Aii?in a oii, eae aai iaia?o?eou a oaenoa, eae ?acee?eou a iieeoiie?aneii aoea ii­aanoaiaaoaeuiuo aieinia? Yei iieaaaao, ?oi eaaioeoeeaoey ia­?acoiaiai aaoi?a inouanoaeia eeou ia iae?io?iaia oaenoa — oi anou ia o?iaia iaoaia??aoeaiii. Ia?acoiaue aaoi? — It, Es, Iii — eeoai ?iaiauo ioee?ee a ycuea, ii ii iaia?o?eaa­ao naay a ea?anoaa ia??aoeaiie no?aoaaee, eae niaieoiiinou ei­no?oeoee aey ia?acoiaiai ?eoaoaey. Eia?a aiai?y, yoi oi, ?oi iacuaaaony a ynoaoeea noeeai1.  ?oiau auynieou, eae eaoaai?ey ia?acoiaiai aaoi?a aiiei­uaaony a oaenoa, Yei ia?auaaony e Neeuaee ?a?a?a aa Ia?aa-ey. Ia i?ioy?aiee iiiaeo eao ii ia?auaeny e yoiio ?iiaio a naieo oaenoao, naieia?ao, n ea?aui ?acii, ii aai nianoaaiii­io i?eciaie?, iaia?o?eaay iiaua ainoieinoaa yoiai oaenoa2. I?aeoeea close reading, aiaoiie?aneiai ?oaiey oaenoa (oi, ?oi ni a?aiai no?oeoo?aeecia e «iiaie e?eoeee» yaeyeinu iniiaie naieioe?aneiai iaoiaa), ia ?ac?ooeea aai iaae?.  Niaoeoe?aneia ainoieinoai aaiiiai i?iecaaaaiey ninoieo a ia?ao? i?a?aau a eeoa?aoo?iii niaa?oainoaa ianiaa?oaiii­ai o?aioocneiai aeaaiea. «Je sortais… je paraissais…» — oi?iu aeaaieia, aiaeiae eioi?ui nouanoao?o a eoaeuyineii, ii ia­aicii?iu a aiaeeeneii ycuea, ?oi aaeaao aaiiia i?iecaaaaiea i?iaeaiaoe?iui aey ia?aaiaa. Yei oaa?aai, ?oi eiaiii ?a?a­aiaaiea ianiaa?oaiiiai e i?inoiai i?ioaaoaai a?aiai ain­oaaeyao ?eoaoae? aeaaiia ianea?aaiea, iineieueo yoi i?eaaao anae enoi?ee aoiinoa?o ia?oaoaeuiinoe e ianiaoiinoe. ?iiai i?iecaiaeo naiaai ?iaa «yooaeo ooiaiiinoe» (effet de brouillard), oae eae i?aiu o?oaii iiiyou, eaao ee ?a?u i i?ioeii eee i ianoiyuai, iiaanoaoao ee Ia??aoi? i oaeoe?aneii eee i?eii­ieiaaiii3. Iiaanoaiaaiea aaaaony io ia?aiai eeoa, ii ia ia??aoi?, a eiaiii ia?acoiaue aaoi? a noeeenoe?aneii aniaeoa en­iieucoaiuo a?aiaiiuo oi?i aeaaiea nicaaao ia?acoiaiai ?e­oaoaey «Neeuaee». A?oaia ii?aceoaeuiia naienoai yoiai oaenoa — «aaeeeieaiiay i?eano?iaea niaoaiiuo aaoi?neeo e iiaanoai­aaoaeuiuo aieinia»4. Ana yoi aianoa i?iaioe?oao ?eoaoaey, ?a-  1 Eco U. Six walks in the fictional woods. ?. 15.  2 ?acoeuoaou yoiai enneaaiaaiey auee iioaeeeiaaiu O. Yei a aai noa­oua «Sur Sylvie» a niaoeaeuiii auionea ?o?iaea VS. 31—32, 1982.  3 Ni.: Eco U. Interpretation and overinterpretation. ?. 147.  4 Eco U. Six walks in the fictional woods. ?. 20.  164  ea?uaai iiiyou, eaeei ia?acii oaeno ii?i?aaao oi iuouaiea «ooiaiiinoe», oi a?oaea, ia iaiaa ainoeoeoaeuiua ?oanoaa.  E?aia auiuoeaiiia iiaanoaiaaiea ii iaiaoiaeiinoe «oi­?iieeai» (oeie?iui i?eia?ii yaeyaony yeeeioe?aneee e ii­niaoiue oa?aeoa? neaci?iiai iiaanoaiaaiey): aey oiai ?oiau nicaaou ie?, iaiieiaiiue iii?anoaii niauoee e ianaeaiiue ?acee?iuie ia?niia?aie, io?ii oiaiea i?aanoaaeou yoio au­iuoeaiiue ie? oaeei ia?acii, ?oiau ii «i?eaae» aac iia­?iaiiai iienaiey anao aaoaeae. Eeoa?aoo?a, ii ii?aaaeaie?, yeeeioe?aneee aeneo?n, eioi?ue ia oieuei ia ii?ao, ii e ia aie?ai iienuaaou ana e aaaaou en?a?iuaa?uo? eioi?iaoe?. Aaoi?, iuoaynu neacaou neeoeii iiiai, auaeyaeo eiie?iaa, ?ai aai ia?niia?e. I?iecaaaaiea eeou aaao iiaia aey ?aciuoea­iee ?eoaoae?, eioi?ue niiniaai nai caiieieou eaeoiu, iaea­aay iaeioi?ui aiia?a?aieai, ciaieai e iiuoii ?oaiey5.  Eoaei Eaeuaeii oeacuaae ia oi, ?oi nei?inou, eee iiniao­iinou, iiaanoaiaaiey naia ii naaa ia yaeyaony ainoieinoaii i?iecaaaaiey. Auio?aaiiay yeeeioe?iinou iiaanoaiaaiey, naie­noaaiiay anai oaenoai, eniieucoaony ia?acoiaui aaoi?ii a naieo oaeyo — aey nicaaiey ?eoia e oaiia, eioi?ua ea?a?o aaeaei ia iineaai?? ?ieu, a iniaaiiinoe anee ?a?u eaao ia eneonnoaa caiaaeaiey oaiia iiaanoaiaaiey. Iiaanoaiaaoaeuiia a?aiy ii­?ao auou naa??aiiui, oeeee?aneei, iiiioiiiui. A naia a?a­iy a ?iee ?eoaoaey Yei iienuaae oaeea niiniau caiaaeaiey iiaanoaiaaiey, eae, iai?eia?, iienaiey iauaeoia, ia?niia?ae: «aiia?a?aaiua i?iaoeee ca i?aaaeaie eana» (inferential walks). Enoi?ey, ecei?aiiay a oaenoa, ii?ao auou aieaa eee iaiaa e?aoeie (aaa ia?aneac oaaoeu ia caieiaao iiiai a?aiaie), ia­iaei, eae iia?a?eeaaao Yei, noaiaiu aa yeeeioe?iinoe caaeneo io oiai oeia ?eoaoaey, eioi?iio iia aa?aniaaia. Oae, iai?e­ia?, iaeioi?ua ?iiaiu ioee?a?ony aanuia nei?iie oaiii?aeu­iie no?oeoo?ie iiaanoaiaaiey, eioi?ay cao?oaiyao ?aeiino?oe­oe? enoi?ee. ?eoaoae? Neeuaee Ia?aaey neaaoao iniiaaoaeu­ii iio?oaeouny, ?oiau oii?yai?eou o?iiieiae?aneea naaaaiey, i?aainoaaeyaiua aio ia??aoi?ii. A eiia?iii n?aoa e?aiiuo­noai iaeaiiai ?eoaoaey aoaao oaiaeaoai?aii, iaiaei eneooai­iue ?eoaoaeu a i?ioanna ?oaiey iiieiaao, ?oi naea?eainou, ia­oii?yai?aiiinou, oaioe?iinou a?aiaiiuo ioiioaiee io?iu aey nicaaiey ?eoia6.  5 Eco U. Six walks in the fictional woods. ?. 3. 6 Ibid. ?. 41.  165  ?oi eanaaony ia?acoiaiai aaoi?a, oi caanu aiana ia iayca­oaeuii eiaaony a aeao ooii?aiiay e aicauoaiiay oaenooaeuiay no?aoaaey: aai neaau iaia?o?eaa?ony a naiii iai?enoieiii ii?iia?aoe?aneii ?iiaia, noeioee?o?uai aiia?a?aiea e au­cuaa?uai oeceieiae?aneea ?aaeoee. Iiaiaiue ?iiai eae ii­aanoaiaaoaeuiue oaeno ii?ao ia eiaou n??aoa, ia?aie?eaaynu aiaieuii aaaiie enoi?eae, ii ii ia ii?ao nouanoaiaaou aia aeneo?na — eiaiii aeneo?n i?aanoaaeyao aua iaei aniaeo no?a­oaaee ia?acoiaiai aaoi?a.  Aica?auaynu e «eaniie» iaoaoi?a, Yei ioia?aao, ?oi no­uanoaoao eae ieieioi aaa niiniaa i?iaoeeaaouny ii oaenoo. Ia?acoiaue ?eoaoaeu ia?aiai o?iaiy ?aeaao ciaou, ?ai ca­eii?eony enoi?ey (oae, ii?ii i?iaoeeaaouny ii eano, ?oei­aianoaoynu noaoai ooeeeoa?iuie niia?a?aieyie, ?oiau iae­oe aii aaaooee, eioi?o? o?a nuae aiee). Ia?acoiaue ?eoa­oaeu aoi?iai o?iaiy ?ann?eouaaao, ?oi aai aeaii ii yoiio aieoaaiiio eano aoaao oaeno. ?oiau auynieou ia?aia, ainoa­oi?ii i?i?eoaou oaeno iaei ?ac, ?oiau ociaou aoi?ia (e ii­ciaeiieouny n ia?acoiaui aaoi?ii), io?ii auou aioiaui e iii?anoaaiiui i?i?oaieyi. Oieuei oiaaa, eiaaa yiie?e?an­eee ?eoaoaeu ioe?iao aey naay ia?acoiaiai aaoi?a, ii noaiao iieiioaiiui, noi?ie?iaaaoeiny ia?acoiaui ?eoaoaeai7. Iaeaiue ia?acoiaue ?eoaoaeu, aoiay a ia??aoeaiue ean, ia­iiieiaao Yei aieeeaoaneeo i?ia?na?ia i?e neooaiee noaia­?ey: «ia?aoiaeoa e iiaiia, ia o?aouoa a?aiy ia ineoieiae?an­eea aaoaee, iia io?ia ?acaycea»8. Eneooaiiue ?eoaoaeu eaao a ean aey i?iaoeee: i?eyoii iioyioou a?aiy, iieneaou a?eau, enneaaiaaou iio. Caoyaeaaiea ia icia?aao ionoo? o?aoo a?a­iaie. Oniaa?oainoaiaaiiue Oe?eieii suspense ia yaeyaony nianoaaiiinou? o?eeea?a — yoi oieaa?naeuiue i?eai.  Aeaaiia oneiaea, ia eioi?ia ?eoaoaeu niaeaoaaony i?e ?oa­iee oaenoa, — yoi oi, ?oi ii eiaao aaei n auiuoeaiiui ie­?ii. «Auiuoeaiiue» — yoi aicii?iue ie?, ia?aiao?u e ii­aaee nicaaiey eioi?iai Yei aiaeece?oao ai iiiaeo naieo ?aai­oao (iai?eia?, a I?aaaeao eioa?i?aoaoee ii i?iaoao ?anniio?aou ?aaeuiue ie? eae eoeuoo?iue eiino?oeo, ?oiau n?aaieou ?aaeuiue e aicii?iue ie?u). Auiuoeaiiua ie?u ia?aceoe?o?o ia iaoai i?aanoaaeaiee i ?aaeuiii ie?a. Iaia-  7 Eco U. Six walks in the fictional woods. ?. 27.  8 Ibid. ?. 50.  166  ei i?aaeea, ii?aaaey?uaai oi?iia eiee?anoai e i?iii?oe? oee­oeaiuo yeaiaioia a yoii ie?a, ia nouanoaoao. Ii ii?ii oo­aa??aaou iaaa?iyea — yoi eiiiaeoiua, iaeaiueea ie?u, a ei­oi?uo iu ciaai ??euaia Ni?aey eo?oa, ?ai nianoaaiiiai iooa, iaiauynieiua iinooiee, aiaoia ia i?iyaey?ueany no?anoe, oaeiua ainiiieiaiey e iiuo aaonoaa eioi?iai, aicii?ii, ie­eiaaa iai ia aoaoo ecaanoiu.  A oi ?a a?aiy iu i?eaueee n?eoaou, ?oi ciaai aieaa eee iaiaa oi?ii, ?oi yaeyaony «enoeiiui» a ?aaeuiii ie?a. Iai?e­ia?, «oaeoaie» n?eoa?ony eaeaiaa?iua aaou: aannii?ii oi, ?oi nae?an 2000 aia, ?oi Iaiieaii oia? 5 iay 1821 aiaa e o. a. Ii ?oi yaeyaony «enoeiiui» a auiuoeaiiii ie?a? E ianeieuei iu oaa?aiu, ?oi iaoa i?aanoaaeaiea ia «enoeia» a ?aaeuiii ie?a oae o? aannii?ii?  I?eiyoi aoiaou, ?oi iaoa ciaiea i ?aaeuiii ie?a iniiaa­ii ia iiuoa. Yoio iiuo iianeacuaaao iai, e?iiece?oao Yei, ?oi naaiaiy «14 ai?aey 1993 aiaa» e ?oi a yoio aaiu ia iai neiee aaenooe. Iaiaei ia?aia ooaa??aaiea enoeiii eeou ii­noieueo, iineieueo yoi ecia?aoaiea a?aai?eaineiai eaeaiaa?y iauai?eiyoi a caiaaiii ie?a, a aaenooe yaeyaony «neiei» a oie ia?a, a eaeie aai oaao niioaaonoaoao o?iiaoe?aneei eiiaaioeyi caiaaiie oeaeeecaoee (ii ?oi i?iaeaiaoe?ii n oi?ee c?aiey yneeiinia eee aai?eaaiia o?iie?aneie Ao?eee). A oio oaeo, ?oi Iaiieaii oia? a oaeie-oi aaiu e a oaeii-oi ianoa, iai ecaanoai ia ec ee?iiai iiuoa, a ec eiea. Yei i?eaiaeo yoe a?aoiaiou ia ?aae oiai, ?oiau i?a?aaiie ?ac oniiieouny a iiciaaaaiinoe ie?a e a iniiaao caiaaiie yienoaiieiaee («ie? e oae ia?aianaeai nieeinenoaie»9), a n oie eeou oaeu?, ?oiau iaiiiieou naiaio ?eoaoae? i i?ioeai?a?eainoe e iaaaconeia­iinoe iaoeo i?aanoaaeaiee ia enoeiiii e ei?iii a ?aaeuiii ie?a. Niaeanii Oeea?e Iaoiyio, nouanoaoao «eeiaaenoe?aneia ?acaaeaiea o?oaa», eioi?ia niioaaonoaoao nioeaeuiiio ?acaa­eaie? ciaiey: iaia aanyoay ?anou iiaai ciaiey i ie?a, aic­ii?ii, auoaeaao ec iiaai iiuoa, a inoaeuiii y iieaaa?nu ia ciaiey a?oaeo ia yoii ?a ie?a10. Eiaiii aeaaiaa?y yoiio ia­noiyoaeunoao iu ana aua niiniaiu nouanoaiaaou a yoii ie?a, ia aiaaay a iaa?ioe?aneea ia?aiieaaeuiua ninoiyiey e iaea­aay aieaa eee iaiaa oaiaeaoai?eoaeuiie ea?oeiie ie?a, eioi-  9 Eco U. Six walks in the fictional woods. ?. 89.  10 Ni.: Putnam H. Representation and Reality (Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press, 1988). ?. 22ff.  167  ?o? iai i?aainoaaeyao niiauanoai. Iu ?a?iaai iaoe ciaiey ec «yioeeeiiaaee»: any niaieoiiinou ?aeiaa?aneiai ciaiey, ae?ooaeuiay aeaeeioaea, aee??a?uay a naay ana eiaaa-eeai no­uanoaiaaaoea oaenou e neiaa?e, e e iae iu ia?auaainy aey iieo?aiey naaaaiee i ?aaeuiii ie?a11.  Eae au oi ie auei, auiuoeaiiue ie? oaenoa nicaaaony ia iniiaa iaeiaai ia?aca ?aaeuiiai ie?a. ?iiaiu, i?aoaiao?uea ia noaoon enoi?e?aneeo, caaa?o ia?aiao?u naiaai oeeoeaiiai ie?a, aiaeee?oy e «?aaeuiui» enoi?e?aneei aaoai, iae?ini­auoeyi e ee?iinoyi. Oae iinooiaao Aaeuoa? Neioo, iienuaay i?eee??aiey Aeaaiai ia i?aaaiiiaiaiii iieeoe?aneii e ni­oeaeuiii oiia n?aaiaaaeiaie Aiaeee. O?e iooeaoa?a A?ia ai??ony i?ioea enoi?e?aneiai ?eoaeua e ieacuaa?o oneoae a?oaei — ia iaiaa enoi?e?aneei — eeoai. Ianiiiaiii, io­nueea e enoi?e?aneei niauoeyi e iienaiey eiie?aoiuo iano iaania?eaa?o «yooaeo ?aaeuiinoe» auiuoeaiiiai ie?a e can­oaaey?o ?eoaoaey aa?eou a aai enoeiiinou. Aaoi?u auiuoeai­iuo ie?ia aaaoo naay iiaiaii ia?niia?o Aoae Aeeaia, ecaea­ea?uaai ioeoaa-oi ec oaea e aiaeaea?uaai a ?acaiai? oeeuie?aneeo ia?niia?ae «ianoiyuaai» Ia?oaea Iaee?yia, eioi?ue naiei iaiiiaineiaiui i?enoonoaeai oainoiaa?yao i?aaaiii­aiaiinou oeeoeaiiai niauoey.  Ia iaiaa aa?ii e oi, ?oi niauoeyi ?aaeuiiai ie?a iu ii­noiyiii iuoaainy i?eaaou eeoa?aoo?iue aea, iienuaay eo ii caeiiai o?aaeoeiiiuo ?ai?ia e eniieucoy ?acee?iua ia??a­oeaiua noaiu. Aieaa oiai, iaeioi?ua auiuoeaiiua ia?niia­?e aini?eieia?ony iaie eae ?aaeuii nouanoaiaaaoea enoi?e­?aneea ee?iinoe: aii ia Aaeea? No?eo, a eioi?ii yeiau ?ee Oa?eie Oiein, iaianai ia ?aaeuio? ea?oo ai?iaa. Ai Oei?ai­oee ii?ii oaeaaou aii, a eioi?ii Aiea??i yeiau ?acianoee nai? aanaeo? eiiiaie? ec Aaeaia?iia. A ?eoaoaee Iayoieea Ooei — iieiaua ia?e?neea nooaaiou — iaoiayo e oioia?aoe­?o?o aa?, a eioi?ue caoiaee Eacaaii, ii ii nouanoaiaae eeou a aiia?a?aiee Yei.  Iiaiaiua ia?aaienu iaiaiie?aoii aucuaaee aeneonnee n?aae oai?aoeeia eeoa?aoo?u ii iiaiao iioieiaee oeeoeaiuo ia?niia?ae. Iaiaei Oiaa?oi Yei eioa?anoao caanu ia iioiei­aey aicii?iuo ie?ia e eo iaeoaoaeae, a iiceoey ?eoaoaey a yoii ie?a e oi?iao aai yioeeeiiaaee.  11 Ni.: Eco U. Six walks in the fictional woods. ?. 90.  168  Iai?eia?, aaoaeuii ?acae?ay ea?oia?aoe? Ia?e?a, a ei­oi?ii ?eaoo aa?ie A?ia, Yei iaia?o?eaaao ?ya eo?uaciuo iaoi?iinoae iiiianoe?aneiai e aaia?aoe?aneiai oa?aeoa?a: oae, A?ia iinaeee naiaai A?aiena ia oeeoa Na?aaiaiie (oioy a?­oeoaeoi? Na?aaiaiie ?iaeeny a eiioa XVII aaea, a oeeoa auea iacaaia a aai ?anou eeou a ia?aea XIX aaea). Niaeanii ?a aa enoi?e?aneiio iacaaie?, ia iae ?eaao A’A?oaiuyi, ia ciay i naiai «ninaanoaa» n A?aienii. A eoiaa aeaaiua ia?niia?e iea­cuaa?ony a aiaieuii e?aiiuoiie iioieiae?aneie neooaoee. Anee au, aiai?eo Yei, O?e iooeaoa?a ioiineeenu e ?ai?o iao?iie oaioanoeee, ana yoi auei au aicii?iui a auiuoeaiiii ie?a ?iiaia, eai iiaiaiua ?ai?iaua eiiaaioee aiionea?o e?aua iaaa?iyoiua o?ainoi?iaoee a?aiaie e i?ino?ainoaa. ?eoaoaeu ?a A?ia i?eaioe?oaony ia eiiaaioee enoi?e?aneiai ?iiaia: neaaiaaoaeuii, anee A’A?oaiuyi i?eoiaeo ia oeeoo Na?aaiai­ie, oi eioi?iaoe? ia yoie oeeoa ?eoaoaeu neeiiai eneaou a yioeeeiiaaee, aiaa?yynu oaenoo a oii, ?oi A?aien e A’A?oaiu­yi auee a?ocuyie e oiaeee a?oa e a?oao a ainoe. N a?oaie noi­?iiu, eae yiie?e?aneea ?eoaoaee, iu ciaai, ?oi aieee ia ?ac­aiaa?eaa?o, e oai ia iaiaa aiieia i?eieiaai oio ie?, a eioi­?ii E?aniay Oaii?ea ?acaiaa?eaaao n aieeii. Oae ii?aio au e ?eoaoae? A?ia ia aiionoeou, ?oi oeeoa Na?aaiaiie noua­noaiaaea o?a a 1625 aiao?12  Noaiiaeony aiieia iiiyoiui, ?oi ?eoaoaeu, neeiiiue e enoi?e?aneei ?aeiino?oeoeyi e iuoa?ueeny ainnoaiiaeou (ii­aiaii Yei a aai aiaeeca) ?aaeuio? ea?oo Ia?e?a XVII aaea ia iniiaa iienaiee, aaiiuo a ?iiaia, ia ii?ao n?eoaouny ia?acoiaui ?eoaoaeai A?ia. A ea?anoaa oaeiaiai ii iono?a­ieeny au io ianouanoaaiiuo aaoaeae e aiaa?eeny au oaenoo. Ia yaeyaony ia?acoiaui ?eoaoaeai e oio ?eoaoaeu Yei, eioi­?ue ioi?aaeeny a Iaoeiiaeuio? aeaeeioaeo ii?eoaou aaca­ou, aaoe?iaaiiua 24 e?iy 1984 aiaa, ?oiau caoai iieioa?a­niaaouny o Yei, eae iia Eacaaii ia oaeaaou ii?a? ia oaeo oeeou ?ii??, i?iaoeeaaynu oie ii?u?. Ianiiiaiii, yoio yiie?e?aneee ?eoaoaeu caaue i i?aaeeao ea?u, iuoaynu iaay­caou naie i?eaaiey oaenoo.  Anee oaeno iiaaee?oao naiaai ?eoaoaey, oi aicieeaao aii­?in: eaeiai oi?iaoa aie?ia auou yioeeeiiaaey yoiai ?eoaoa­ey? Yioeeeiiaae?aneay eiiiaoaioey ?eoaoaey Iiieiie ii Oei-  12 Eco U. Six walks in the fictional woods. ?. 108.  169  iaaaio A?iena nei?aa anaai aie?ia auou iaia?aie?aiiie. A oi a?aiy eae ?eoaoae? O?ao iooeaoa?ia ia iaycaoaeuii ciaou, eoi oaeie Aiiaia?o (ainoaoi?ii eiaou iaeia i?aanoaaeaiea i oa?noaa E?aiaeea XIII), e o? oai aieaa ia aa?ii, ecaanoii ee A’A?oaiuyio, ?oi a oi a?aiy Aia?eea o?a auea ioe?uoa. Eiai­ii aaee?eia auiuoeaiiiai ie?a ii?aaaeyao a?aieou ?eoaoaeu­neie yioeeeiiaaee13. I?e yoii nouanoaoao aeaaiia i?aaeei: yeiiiie?aneee e?eoa?ee eioa?i?aoaoee oeeoeaiiai ie?a. Anee oaeno i?eaaao io naiaai ?eoaoaey i?eaea?aiey iaoe?iuo eioa?oaenooaeuiuo ciaiee e niiniaiinoe aaeaou aaeaei eao­uea (auoiayuea ca i?aaaeu aaiiiai ia??aoeaiiai eana) oii­caee??aiey, oi ii nai oea?ao ?eoaoae? ia yoi ianoiyoaeunoai — iin?aanoaii nei?iie ia??aoeaiie eiino?oeoee, eciaeeey ia­oaoi? e ycueiauo ea?. A yoii niunea ia?acoiaue ?eoaoaeu A?iena ieeae ia ii?ao auou ia?acoiaui ?eoaoaeai A?ia. Ii?ii i?aanoaaeou naaa iaeaiinou iiaiaiiai caiauaiey, anee aneaa ca Yei iiiuoaouny ia?a?eoaou O?ao iooeaoa?ia eae anee au ?a?u oea i nia?aiaiiie eioaeeaeooaeuiie i?ica. A yoii neo?aa i?ici?eeaue ?eoaoaeu n?ae au neo?aeio? ioeaeo A?ia ca i?aaiaia?aiio? aee?ce?, iooaeeeaaynu io iacaaiey aeaau — «Enoi?ey caioouaaaony», ?oi eioa?i?aoe?iaaeinu au ei o?a ia eae ionueea e e?aiaiie eio?eaa A’A?oaiuyia, a eae iaiae ia ia?eiaoee naiiai ia??aoeaiiai i?ioanna. ?ai?iaua eii­aaioee, iau?ii noaniy?uea yiie?e?aneiai aaoi?a, aanuia ii­eaciu aey ia?acoiaiai ?eoaoaey, iaania?eaay oai naiui yei­iiie?aneee e?eoa?ee eioa?i?aoaoee.  Anee auiuoeaiiua ie?u oae eiioi?oiu, ii?aio au ia ii­iuoaouny eioa?i?aoe?iaaou ?aaeuiue ie? niaeanii i?aaeeai ooai?anoaaiiiai iiaanoaiaaiey? Eee, iai?ioea, ii?aio au ia iaono?aeaaou auiuoeaiiua ie?u iiaiaii aieuoiio, nei?ii­io e i?ioeai?a?eaiio ?aaeuiiio ie?o? Ia aoi?ie aii?in io­aao o?a nouanoaoao, eai Aaioa, ?aaea, Oaenie?, A?ien oae e iinooiaee. A naiae eiioaioee ioe?uoiai i?iecaaaaiey Oiaa?­oi Yei enneaaoao eiaiii oaeea i?iecaaaaiey eeoa?aoo?u e en­eonnoaa, eioi?ua oae ?a aaoniuneaiiu e caiooaiiu, eae naia ?eciu. Iaiaei Yei ioia?aao, ?oi, oioy ?eciu ai?acai aieaa iaiiieiaao Oeenna, ?ai O?ao iooeaoa?ia, iu oai ia iaiaa neeiiiu eioa?i?aoe?iaaou aa eiaiii a aooa iineaaiaai ?iia­ia, a ia ii A?ieno (ainoaoi?ii aniiiieou i ia??aoeaiuo no?a-  13 Eco U. Six walks in the fictional woods. ?. 109.  170  oaaeyo oaeaaeceiiiuo iiainoae). Eiaiii iioiio, ?oi oeeoea­iue ie? aaao iai iuouaiea o?oa e i?aaneacoaiinoe, iu iuoa­ainy iaaycaou ?aaeuiiio ie?o ia??aoeaiua noaiu, caeinoai­aaiiua ec ooai?anoaaiiuo i?iecaaaaiee14. Yei ia?auaaony e ?acee?iui eo?uaciui neo?ayi, eioi?ua iauaaeiyao iauee cia­iaiaoaeu: iu ia?a?aiu eioa?i?aoe?iaaou ?eciu oae, eae anee au iia yaeyeanu auiuneii, e vice versa — ?eoaou eeoa?aoo?iia i?iecaaaaiea, eae anee au ?a?u oea i ?aaeuiii ie?a.  ?acoiaaony, ii?ii iaeoe ii?aaaeaiiua i?aaeea, iiiiaa?­uea ?acee?aou eneonnoaaiiua e anoanoaaiiua ia??aoeau: aaia­iua oi?ioeu oeia «?ee aa aue», iiacaaieiaie «?iiai a noe­oao» e a?oaea oi?iu ia?aoaenoa ianiiiaiii i?ecaaiu iiaa­aaou ?eoaoae? neaiaeu oeeoeaiinoe aaiiiai niiauaiey. Eae iieacae a naia a?aiy ?ieai Aa?o, «yooaeo ?aaeuiinoe» a eeoa­?aoo?iuo i?iecaaaaieyo ainoeaaaony eiaiii ca n?ao iia?iaii­ai iienaiey aaoaeae (auoa, aiaoiinoe, iaeca?a), i?aaaiiiaia­iinou eioi?uo ni?aoaaony n eo iieiie iaaieacoaiinou?, — ii ie iaia ec enoi?e?aneeo o?iiee ia niaa??eo iiaiaiuo iiena­iee. A aaenoaeoaeuiinoe, iineieueo iaaicii?ii ii?aaaeeou no?oeoo?iua ?acee?ey ia?ao yoeie aaoiy oeiaie iiaanoaiaa­iey, ana yoe ia?u iiaoo auou aaniieaciuie, noieo eeou ia?o­oeou iaii e aac oiai iaonoie?eaia eiiaaioeiiaeuiia oneiaea. Iai?eia?, iionoeou ia?aoaenooaeuiua eiaaenu, eniieuciaaou ianaienoaaiiue eaiae niiauaiey eee ia?ooeou ?ai?iaia ni­ioaaonoaea ia?ao i?iecaaaaieai e eiioaenoii aai aini?eyoey. A ?acoeuoaoa aicieea?o neooaoee, aeeceea e oie, eioi?ay i?i­ecioea ni neaiaaeuii ecaanoiie ?aaeiiinoaiiaeie I?niia Oyeena (Aieia ie?ia, 1938), aini?eiyoie neooaoaeyie eae an­oanoaaiiue ia??aoea. Eee neo?ae n ioaeeeaoeae a iaiie ec aieiineeo aacao ?anneaca Eae y oaee Oiaa?oi Yei, iaienaiii­ai iaiei ec a?ocae ?aaeuii nouanoao?uaai Oiaa?oi Yei, aaa Yei oeao?e?iaae ia i?aaao auiuoeaiiiai ia?niia?a, a nai ?anneac aue iaia?aoai a ?oa?eea, i?aaiacia?aiiie aey ynnaenoeee. ?icua?uo oaaeny.  N a?oaie noi?iiu, ii?aio iaeioi?ua auiuoeaiiua ia?ni­ia?e a eiia?iii n?aoa ieacuaa?ony aieaa ?aaeuiuie, ?ai io­aaeuiua enoi?e?aneea ee?iinoe? I?a?aa anaai iioiio, ?oi iie iieeaa?o ie? naiaai i?iecaaaaiey, naiae enoi?ee e ia?eia?o no?ainoaiaaou ii a?oaei oaenoai, ieacuaaynu eiiaaa a naiuo  14 Eco U. Six walks in the fictional woods. ?. 118.  171  iaaiia?aceiuo ianoao. Aieaa oiai, iiyaeaiea A’A?oaiuyia n?aae iieeiiieeia Ne?aii aa Aa??a?aea a iaiieiaiiie iuana ain­i?eieiaaony eae aiieia anoanoaaiiay ano?a?a aaoo aa?iaa, ?a­aeuiia nouanoaiaaiea iaiiai ec eioi?uo eaaeoeie?oaony i?e­noonoaeai a?oaiai — iieooeeoeaiiai ia?niia?a. Yei a naiai ynna i Eanaaeaiea o?a iieacuaae, ?oi i?aa?auaiea oeeuia eee oaenoa a eoeuoiaia i?iecaaaaiea inouanoaeyaony aeaaiui ia­?acii ca n?ao aennioeaoee iiaanoaiaaiey eae oaeinoiinoe, e oaeei ia?acii yeno?aoaenooaeuiay e eio?aoaenooaeuiay ?eciu ia?niia?ae iai?yio? naycaia n eoeuoiaui oa?aeoa?ii aaiii­ai eoeuoo?iiai oaenoa15. Eoeuo Aeaeee, yoiai naiiai ciaiaie­oiai iaeeiinanoa caiaaiie oeaeeecaoee, eee aiaa?aiaiiie on­iao Aaieaoa iaycaiu naiei nouanoaiaaieai eiaiii i?ioeai­?a?eainoe, iiiaineieiinoe e ?aci?aaiiinoe naiae ia??aoee… Niinia nouanoaiaaiey a ?aaeuiii ie?a ioee?ai io niiniaa nouanoaiaaiey e iaoaai i?aanoaaeaiey ia «enoeiiinoe» oie ?ai?acaioaoee, eioi?ay iai aaia a auiuoeaiiii ie?a eeoa?a­oo?u. Yei oaa?ai, ?oi iu io?aaainy a eeoa?aoo?a eiaiii ii­oiio, ?oi iia aaao iai i?aiu eiioi?oiia iuouaiea nouanoai­aaiey a ie?a (neaci?iii eano), aaa iiiyoea enoeiu aannii?ii, oiaaa eae ?aaeuiue ie? i?iaioe?oao ai?acai aieaa na?uaciua niiiaiey. Iu ?oanoaoai naay aaniiiiuiuie, iuoaynu iinoe?u aai eiaeeo e iienaou aai eaae?eioiiiaiaio? no?oeoo?o. A ia­aa?aa, ?oi i?aaeea ea?u nouanoao?o e a ?aaeuiii ie?a, ?aei­aa?anoai ecia?aei e iaaaeeei aiaa «aaoi?neei i?aaii», ia?a­aaa aio ioaaonoaaiiinou ca nicaaiea iioieiae?aneie ia??aoee, inoaaea naaa aa?o a oi, ?oi ai?anoaaiiia iineaiea nouanoaoao e o iaai anou niune16.  15 Eco U. Six walks in the fictional woods. ?. 127.  16 Ibid. ?. 116.  172  Eaio e ooeiiin… a yienoaiieiae?aneeo aaa?yo  Eaio e ooeiiin1 — iaaaaiee iioaeeeiaaiiue iiaue o?oa Yei, aicii?ii, ianeieuei oiee?o?uee naiei iacaaieai, oioy… N iaiie noi?iiu, yoi aaenoaeoaeuii oeeinioneee o?oa ii i?i­aeaiai yienoaiieiaee e aecoaeuiie naieioeee, e oiiieiaiea eiaie Eaioa aiana ia neo?aeii. N a?oaie noi?iiu, ooeiiinu, aaeii?iae, eioaae, aa?aauy, eiou, iuoe, eaiie eniieuciaa­eenu e eniieuco?ony Yei, iniaaiii a iineaaiea aiau, a ea?a­noaa iaeaieaa oaiaiuo aey iia?e?iaaiey i?eia?ia (eae iiuo­iue iaaaaia Yei niaoeaeuii ia?auaaony e yoei «naieioe?an­eei i?eieoeaai», ?oiau aioia?eai iauynieou nei?iaeoea iaoa?ee).  I?eioeieaeuii iiaie a yoie eieaa ea?aony eeou iaia oaia — a aeaaa I auoee. «Iiaie» iioiio, ?oi Yei, aa?a a yiioo Naieioeee e oeeinioee ycuea eee Ynoaoeee Oiiu Aeaeineiai, oi anou nianoaaiii oeeinioneeo oaenoia, ia ia?a­uaeny e yie?aneiio ?ai?o iioieiaee. Ai?i?ai, ioi?aanoaeyy iauo? naieioeeo n oeeinioeae ycuea, ii anaaaa inoaaeye io­e?uoie yoo aicii?iinou. E?aiiuoii, nei?aa, a?oaia: a oa?a­iea iineaaieo eao Yei, eacaeinu, iono?aieeny io enneaaiaaiey i?iaeaiu aecoaeuiiai aini?eyoey e niaoeoeee eeiie?aneiai ciaea, nin?aaioi?eaoenu aeaaiui ia?acii ia oaenooaeuiie naieioeea, oioy i?iaeaiu eeiie?aneiai ciaea e aecoaeuiie eiiioieeaoee enneaaiaaeenu ei i?aiu eioaineaii a 60—70-o aiaao2. A?inaaony a aeaca e iia?a?eiooue aeaaaieci aaiiie  1 Ni.: Eco U. Kant e l’ornitorinco (Milano: Bompiani, 1997).  2 N oi?eie c?aiey Oiaa?oi Yei ia i?iaeaio eeiie?aneiai ciaea e aai e?eoeeie eiioaioee Ie?na e Ii??ena ii?ii iciaeiieouny a Io­noonoao?uae no?oeoo?a (n. 119 — 144). Neaaoao caiaoeou, ?oi, ia­niio?y ia aiaieuii e?eoe?aneia ioiioaiea e i?aaei?aiiui Ie?­nii ii?aaaeaieyi eeiie?aneiai ciaea e eeiie?iinoe a oaeii, i?e enneaaiaaiee oaiiiaiia aecoaeuiie eiiioieeaoee e ecia?a?aiey eae oaeiaiai Yei ana ?a i?aaii?eoaao eniieuciaaou yoio iiaoia, eai yoi aaeinoaaiiay aeuoa?iaoeaa eeiaaenoe?aneiio oieaa?naeec­io. Ia?ao oai, eae ioia?aao Yei, «aaeaei ia ana eiiioieeaoeaiua oaiiiaiu ii?ii iauynieou n iiiiuu? eeiaaenoe?aneeo eaoaai?ee», e «aecoaeuiua oaeou» a oii ?enea (n. 121). E?iia oiai, eiaiii «naieioeea Ie?na ocaeiieea i?aanoaaeaiey eae ia eeiie?iinoe cia­eia, oae e i ciaeiainoe ecia?a?aiee» (?a?oia E. O. Ciaeiainou. NIa., 1993. N. 137). A Ionoonoao?uae no?oeoo?a Yei aiaeece?oao ii?aaaeaiey eeiie?aneiai ciaea, i?aaei?aiiua Ie?nii e ia?a?a­aioaiiua aiineaanoaee Ii??enii. Oae, Ie?n ii?aaaeye eeiie?aneee ciae eae ciae, iaeaaa?uee ecaanoiui anoanoaaiiui noianoaii n iauaeoii, eioi?ue ii i?aanoaaeyao (ni.: Peirce Ch. S. Logic as Semiotic: The Theory of Signs. ?. 104—107). Aey Ii??ena eeiie?aneei ciaeii yaeyaony oaeie ciae, eioi?ue ianao a naaa iaeioi?ua naienoaa ?ai­?acaioe?oaiiai iauaeoa eee, oi?iaa, «iaeaaaao naienoaaie nianoaai­iuo aaiioaoia» (oeo. ii: Yei O. Ionoonoao?uay no?oeoo?a. N. 124). Yei ioia?aao, ?oi a eiia?iii n?aoa aii?in naiaeony e oiio, ?oi iu iiieiaai iia «iaeioi?uie naienoaaie» eee «anoanoaaiiui noia­noaii». «Eeiie?aneee ciae noiaai n icia?aaiie aauu? oieuei a ia­eioi?uo aniaeoao. Aio ioaao, eioi?ue ii?ao oaiaeaoai?eou ca?a­aue niune, ii ia naieieiae?. Yoe iauea naienoaa ciaea e iauaeoa, iie aeaiu a iauaeoa eee ecaanoii, ?oi iie o iaai anou?» Auaia Yei: «eeiie?aneee ciae ii?ao iaeaaaou neaao?ueie ea?anoaaie iauae­oa: iioe?aneeie (aeaeiuie), iioieiae?aneeie (i?aaiieaaaaiuie) e eiiaaioeiiaeuiuie, oneiaii i?eiyouie, niiaaee?iaaiiuie, oaei­au, iai?eia?, eo?e nieioa, ecia?a?aiiua a aeaa ?a?oi?ae». Ii «i?aa­noaaeyao niaie iiaaeu ioiioaiee ia?ao a?aoe?aneeie oaiiiaia­ie, eciii?oio? oie iiaaee ia?oaioeaiuo ioiioaiee, eioi?o? iu auno?aeaaai, eiaaa ociaai eee i?eiiieiaai eaeie-oi iauaeo», oi anou anee caanu e ii?ii aiai?eou i eaeeo-eeai iaueo naienoaao, oi yoi ana-oaee ia ia?ao ciaeii e aai iauaeoii, a ia?ao ciaeii e no?oeoo?ie aai aini?eyoey. (Oai ?a. N. 125, 130, 131, 135.)  173  eieae. ?eoaoaeyi Yei, i?eaueoei e ea?eainoe e iaaneo?a?e­aa?uae eaaeinoe aai ienuia, yoio oaeno ii?ao iieacaouny neeo­eii eiina?aaoeaiui. Oa eiina?aaoeaiinou, ia eioi?o? Yei i?a­oaiaiaae, ia?aie?eaay i?aaa eioa?i?aoaoee e naiaiao ?eoaoa­ey, i?iyaeeanu ia yoio ?ac eae a auai?a oaiu, oae e a neaaiaaiee ii?aaaeaiiui noeeenoe?aneei e ?ai?iaui eiiaaioeyi.  Nai oaeo iiyaeaiey yoie eieae ii?ao auou eioa?i?aoe?i­aai eae aaieiay ?ao?iniaeoey a oeeinioe? e aecoaeuio? naieioeeo, ii iaiia?aiaiii eae ia?niaeoeaiay iiiuoea i?a­iaieaiey aenoeieeia?iuo a?aieo ia?ao iioieiaeae, yienoa­iieiaeae, naieioeeie e ineoieiaeae aini?eyoey, iineieueo oai, aaa Yei — n iiiiuu? ooeiiinia e i?i?ae ?eaiinoe — ia?eia­ao naie aiaeec, aecoaeuiay naieioeea anaaaa inoaiaaeeaaeanu. Naieioeea aiiaua, ia?eiay n Ninn??a, i?aaii?eoaea caiae?e­aaou i?iaeaio nouanoaiaaiey ?aoa?aioa e iioeae?iaaiiinoe ciaea. Yei ioia?aao, ?oi ?oanoai iaoaiaeaoai?aiiinoe ia iiee­aaei aai ni a?aiai ioaeeeaoee Oai?ee naieioeee, iineieueo  174  aoi?o? ?anou aio anaaaa oioaeinu ia?aienaou e ?anoe?eou, oi anou eiaiii i?iaeaiu ?aoa?aioee, eeiiecia, enoeiu, aini?e­yoey, «aioo?aiiaai ii?iaa» naieioeee, a oae?a ioiioaiee ia?ao ycueii, oaeii e iiuoii inoaaaeenu iai?iyniaiiuie. A nayce n yoei eiaao niune aniiiieou i oii, ?oi a Oai?ee naieioeee Oiaa?oi Yei aae e?eoeeo «oanoe iaeaiuo iiiyoee», oi anou iaeaieaa ?anoi ano?a?a?ueony caaeo?aaiee ii iiaiao eeiie?aneiai ciaea, e iaeioi?ui ec eioi?uo ii aica?auaaony e ia yoio ?ac (iai?eia?, e i?aanoaaeaie? i oii, ?oi eeiie?an­eee ciae iaeaaaao iaueie naienoaaie ni naiei iauaeoii, ?oi ii iiaiaai iauaeoo, ?oi ii iioeae?iaai ei)3.  Oi, ?oi eioa?anoao Yei nae?an, — yoi enneaaiaaiea i?a­a?aoiinoae naieicena eae iineaaiaaoaeuiinoe eioa?i?aoaioia e aiaeec eioa?i?aoaioia eae ?acoeuoaoa eieeaeoeaiiai i?ioan­na eioa?i?aoaoee. I?aaiiei?ei, ?oi noauaeo, iuoa?ueeny iiiyou ana, ?oi ii iieo?aao ec naiaai iiuoa iauaiey n aia­oiei ie?ii, oi?ie?oao oaiu eioa?i?aoaioia, ii aua ai yoiai a ea?o anooia?o i?ioannu eioa?i?aoaoee ie?a, iniaaiii a neo­?aa ano?a?e n iauaeoaie iaciaeiiuie e iaiiiyoiuie (eae, ia­i?eia?, ooeiiin a eiioa XVIII aaea), iaeaeaaiua a oi?io «i?i­c?aiey», eioi?ay ia naiii aaea aunooiaao aeoii naieicena, inii?eaa?uei i?aaonoaiiaeaiiua eoeuoo?iua nenoaiu.  Oaeei ia?acii, i?iaeaia i?aaaeia eioa?i?aoaoee, eioa?a­niaaaoay Yei aieaa anaai a iineaaiaa aanyoeeaoea, caanu aun­ooiaao eae i?iaeaia a?aieo iiieiaiey, eioi?ua ii?aaaeaiu eoeuoo?ie (e aiieie?o?ueie a yoie eoeuoo?a oaenoaie). A yoii eiioaenoa e aicieeaao i?iaeaia auoey — eae i?iaeaia i?aaa­eia naiaiau iaoaai ycuea e yioeeeiiaaee.  A ynna I auoee Yei iaiiieiaao i oii, ?oi i?iaeaia au­oey — ii nooe oaenooaeuiay i?iaeaia: eai iiieiaiea yoie no­ia?i?iaeaiu iaoneiaeaii, ii e ia?aie?aii aicii?iinoyie ycu­ea (iienaiey). Oaeei ia?acii, ii?ii niaeoee?iaaou ii iiaiao eiia?iinoe e a?aieo auoey, ii ai?acai aieaa i?aaeaiie enoe­iie yaeyaony oaeo ia?aie?aiiinoe eioa?i?aoaoee auoey, ii?a­aaeaiiuo ycueii. Eaio iieaaae, ?oi, iineieueo aauu-a-naaa (auoea eae ?aoa?aio ycuea) iaiinoe?eia, iinoieueo ycue i?aa­eaaaao iai ia iiiyoey a no?iaii niunea, a, nei?aa, iaoaoi?u aaue-a-naaa. Iiycey ciaea yoi anaaaa, eniieucoy iaoaoi?o eae niinia ?ai?acaioaoee Nouaai.  3 Ni.: Eco U. A Theory of Semiotics. P. 191—192.  175  Yei iooaeeeaaaony io naiaioe?aneie iaii?aaaeaiiinoe na­iiai oa?ieia auoea, iaae?aaaiie ai anao ycueao. Yoi neiai eniieucoaony aey ia?auaiey e ?aio oaiaii, oieuei ia e nia­noaaiiiio icia?aaiiio4. Oaeay iieenaie?iinou io?a?aao ooi­aaiaioaeuiia yienoaiieiae?aneia cao?oaiaiea, naycaiiia n i?aa­noaaeaieai auoey. A?aiaoe?aneee aii?in Eaeaieoa: «Ii?aio nouanoaoao, nei?aa, ia?oi, ?ai ie?oi?» — iicaieyao caee??eou, ?oi auoea a ia?ae?iii i?eaee?aiee ii?aaaeyaony eae ia?oi. E yoei ia?oi caieiaaony oae?a naieioeea. Eai, eniieucoy ciaee, iu niiauaai i ?ai-oi, ii ii?aio yoi i?ienoiaeo e ?oi iicaieyao iai nicaaaaou ciaee? Ia?oi.  Oeeinioey ycuea i?aaei?eea iiiai ainoaoi?ii oaiaeao­ai?eoaeuiuo ioaaoia ia aii?inu, naycaiiua n i?ienoi?aaie­ai, ooieoeiie?iaaieai e nouiinou? ycuea, iaiaei ai neo ii? inoaaony ii?oe ia?ac?aoeiie i?iaeaia iaoeo aieeiaaenoe?aneeo ioiioaiee n ?ai-oi, ?oi ycue i?ecaai io?a?aou. Iai?e­ia?, ii?ii enneaaiaaou n ?aciuo oi?ae c?aiey ooaa??aaiea «niaa — aaeue», iaiaei ia?ae?iui yaeyaony aii?in ia i a?ai­iaoe?aneie no?oeoo?a yoiai auneacuaaiey, a i i?iaeaia iioe­ee aini?eyoey — aaenoaeoaeuii ee niaa yaeyaony aaeui?  Ie?n a naiae oai?ee iiciaiey ?acee?ae «aeiaie?aneee» e «iaiin?aanoaaiiue» iauaeou: aeiaie?aneee iauaeo ii?i?aaao ?ai?acaioaiai — iaiin?aanoaaiiue iauaeo5, eioi?ue, a nai? i?a?aau, ii?i?aaao oaeo? oaiu eioa?i?aoaioia n oai, ?oiau a eiia?iii n?aoa aa?ioouny iiyou e aeiaie?aneiio iauaeoo — eae oaee eioa?i?aoaoee. «Iaieioee?oy ciaeaie, iu ia?aua­ainy e «aeiaie?aneiio iauaeoo» eae terminus ad quem naieice­na»6. Aeiaie?aneee iauaeo anaaaa inoaaony aauu?-a-naaa, eioi­?o? iaeucy iinoe?u, ii ii?ii e iae i?eaeeceouny a i?ioanna naieicena. Yoi ia?oi, ?oi ii?i?aaao ciaee, i?e?ai ia iu ia­i?aaeyai ia iaai naia aieiaiea niciaoaeuiui aieaaui oneee­ai, a iii i?eaeaeaao e naaa iaoa aieiaiea. Oaeei ia?acii, naieioeea ia ii?ao ia io?a?aou yoi ia?oi, ?oi ii?ii iacu­aaou auoeai.  4 Eco U. A Theory of Semiotics («Sull’essere»). ?. 2.  5 Iia «iaiin?aanoaaiiui iauaeoii» ciaea Ie?n eiaao a aeao «iun­eaiio? ?ai?acaioaoe?» iaeiaai ?aaeuiiai iauaeoa (caanu Ie?n aa­eaao iaiai?eo, ?oi i?aaeeuiaa auei au aanoe ?a?u ia i «?aaeuiii», a i nouanoao?uai iauaeoa). (Ni.: Peirce Ch. S. Pragmatism in Retrospect: A Last Formulation, in Philosophical Writings of Peirce. ?. 275.)  6 Ni.: Eco U. Kant e I’ornitorinco. ?. xi.  176  I?iaeaia auoey, ii iiaie? Yei, iaeiaiaa «anoanoaaiiay» ec anao a?oaeo, iia ia ii?ao auou ?aoaia n oi?ee c?aiey ca?aai­ai niunea, eai yaeyaony ia?ae?iui iniiaaieai ca?aaiai niun­ea. A oi ?a a?aiy i?iaeaia auoey ia naiaeia e aii?ino i ?a­aeuiinoe ie?o?a?uaai ian ie?a, oioy a yoie neooaoee iai iea­cuaaaony i?aiu aeecea nieeinenoneay oi?ea c?aiey Aa?eee7. Auoea i?aaoanoaoao aeoo ?a?e, iaiaei aey ian iii aunooiaao eiaiii eae yooaeo ycuea, eae ia?oi, ?oi o?aaoao eioa?i?aoa­oee, iii noaiiaeony «?aaeuiinou?» eeou a iiiaio, eiaaa iu i iai aiai?ei. A?aiaoe?aneei iiiaioii a yoie neooaoee yaeyao­ny oi, ?oi ?aeiaae anaaaa aiai?eo ia iauai, a oi a?aiy eae ana aaue a ie?a aaeie?iu (nii? oieaa?naeenoia e iiieiaeenoia ii-i?a?iaio aeooaeai). E oiio ?a, ?aciuoeyy i auoee, iu ?aciuoeyai oae?a e i naaa, a ?acoeuoaoa nicaaaony aaoniun­eaiiia iiei?aiea, eiaaa noauaeo aiai?eo ia iauaeoa, ?anou? eioi?iai yoio noauaeo yaeyaony.  Ie?n iieaaae, ?oi e?aay ia eaaaeenoe?aneay oeeinioey aiioneaao nouanoaiaaiea ?aai-oi aanie?oii iaiauynieiiai — iineaaiaai iaaiaeece?oaiiai, eioi?ia ii?ii i?aanoaaeou naaa eeou n iiiiuu? na?ee oiicaee??aiee, eniieucoy ciaee. Oa­eei ia?acii, ia «ciay» auoey, iu, oai ia iaiaa, aiai?ei i iai — ia ycuea iiycee eee oeeinioee, oi anou i auoee ii?ii aiai?eou ?aciuie niiniaaie — a e?aii neo?aa iu aiai?ei i oii, ?oi iai ia aaii. Ii?ao auou, auoea — yoi iiyoe?aneay oeia?a? Iaiaei, aa?a anee auoea i?aanoaao eae ?acoeuoao eioa?i?aoaoee, oai ia iaiaa naie eioa?i?aoaoee eciaiy?ony ni a?aiaiai (niaia ia?aaeai a oeeinioee e iaoea). Cia?eo, nouanoao?o eaeea-oi e?eoa?ee aiaia, iicaiey?uea niioiineou yoe eioa?i?aoaoee n iaeeie oece?aneeie e enoi?e?aneeie oae­oaie?8  Ai anyeii neo?aa, iu ecaeaeaai ec iaoaai iiuoa «a?ooaeu­iua oaeou», naeaaoaeunoao?uea i oii, ?oi anee iu e ianiinia­iu ii?aaaeeou auoea, oi iii naii ii?aaaeyao a?aieou iaoaai iiieiaiey e iiuoa — iiyoiio, iai?eia?, ?a?aiaoe ia eaoa?o, a «ooe ia i?i?eua?o ioaa?oeie» (i?eia? ec aeneonnee Yei n ?i?oe ia eioa?i?aoaoee e eniieuciaaiee oaenoa). I?e yoii ana-oaee auoea aiai?eo i naaa, nei?aa, a iiceoeaiii ieaia («nei­?aa ia?oi, ?ai ie?oi»): ?a?aiaoa ia eaoaao, caoi iia niiniaia  7 Eco U. Kant e I’ornitorinco. ?. 8.  8 Ibid. ?. 35.  177  ia?aaaeaaouny ii caiea. Ai?i?ai, a oeeinioee aicii?iuo ie?ia e yoi noaiiaeony aicii?iui. Naii auoea ieeiaaa ia aiai?eo iai «iao», aicii?iinou (aey «iiciaiey») anaaaa inoaaony io­e?uoie.  Ii ?oi ?a ana-oaee naycuaaao Eaioa n ooeiiinii? Ie?a­ai, — iaaneo?a?eaaao ian Yei. «Oae i ?ai ?a yoa eieaa? Iiie­ii ooeiiinia, iia ?anneacuaaao i eioeao, niaaeao, iuoeao, eioaayo, ii oae?a i nooeuyo, oa?aeeao, aa?aauyo, ai?ao e i?i­?eo nouanoaao e i?aaiaoao, n eioi?uie iu noaeeeaaainy a?aa­iaaii, a oae?a i oao iniiaaieyo, eioi?ua iicaiey?o iai ioee­?aou neiia io aaiaa?eea»9 — iai anai oii, ?oi caieiaei oiu. oeeinioia, ia?eiay n Ieaoiia e ai nia?aiaiiuo eiaieoeaenoia. Iao, eiia?ii, ooeiiin eae aeieiae?aneee aea a?ya ee ei­oa?anai oeeinioee eee naieioeea. Iaiaei anee iu caaaaeiny aii?inii i oii, eae iu ?aniiciaai ooeiiina, ioee?ay aai io anao a?oaeo ?eaioiuo ii eaeei-oi niaoeoe?aneei i?eciaeai; anee iu i?iaie?ei auyniyou, ii?aio ooeiiin aue iacaai «oo­eiiinii» (ii anoanoao eee ii niaeaoaie?), e, iaeiiao, eae iu eioa?i?aoe?oai aaiiue aea ?eaioiiai iin?aanoaii ?acee?­iuo aeaia ?ai?acaioaoee, aini?iecaiay aai eaeineie?aoe?an­eea ?a?ou, eioi?ua aoaoo ociaaaaiu ia oieuei iaie, ii e a?o­aeie, — aio oiaaa iu nii?ai iiiyou eioa?an Yei e yoiio nei­iaoe?iiio, oioy e ianeieuei iaeaiiio nouanoao. Oaeei ia?acii, a yoie eieaa ?a?u eaao i o?ao acaeiinaycaiiuo i?iaeaiao, nay­cuaa?ueo aiaaeii aiinaieiae?, ineoieiae?, eeiaaenoeeo e naieioeeo: a eaeie ia?a i?ioannu (aecoaeuiiai) aini?eyoey ca­aenyo io iaoaai eiaieoeaiiai aiia?aoa e io no?oeoo?u ycu­ea? Aii?in ii?ii iinoaaeou e eia?a: a eaeie ia?a i?ioannu icia?eaaiey e iuoeaiey ii?aaaey?ony i?ioannii aini?eyoey? Io ?aai caaeneo i?ioann eiioaiooaeecaoee e eae aiineaanoaee ii io?a?aaony ia i?ioanna naieicena? Eaioo ia oaaeinu ?ac?a­oeou yoe i?iaeaiu, ii ii noiae i?aaeeuii noi?ioee?iaaou eo, caeioa?aniaaaoenu ai?ei?iuie iniiaaieyie iaoae niinia­iinoe no?aaiey. Aicii?ii, iu ana yaeyainy ianeaaieeaie ia oieuei eaioianeeo «enoei», ii e aai caaeo?aaiee.  A iianaaiaaiie ?ecie iu i?aiu ?anoi ?oeiaianoaoainy ca?a­aui niuneii a i?ioanna iiieiaiey ?aai-eeai, ?oi, a i?eioeia, niioaaonoaoao iaeiaio on?aaiaiiiio noaiaa?oo ii?iaeuiinoe aini?eyoey. Caeioa?aniaaaoenu i?iaeaiie ca?aaiai niunea, Yei  9 Eco U. Kant a l’ornitorinco. ?. 35.  178  iaia?o?eaaao, ?oi yoa ii?iaeuiinou a oai?aoe?aneii ieaia aanu­ia e?aiiuoia. Oaeiaie iia n?eoaaony eeou a ii?aaaeaiiuo eoeuoo?iuo a?aieoao, iiyoiio, ?oiau iaia?o?eou i?aaaeu eioa?i?aoaoee, iniiaaiiua ia ca?aaii niunea, eo?oa anaai ia­?aoeouny e iai?aeia?iiio neo?a?. Oaeei ia?acii ooeiiino e aiaaeinu noaou aeaaiui ia?niia?ai yoie eieae.  Iieona?uacii-iieooooy Yei ieoao, ?oi ii i?aaii?ae ooei­iina aua e iioiio, ?oi aia?aua iaoae ia?oi, i ?ai ia aiai?ee Ai?oan. Oai ia iaiaa a i?ioanna ioaeeeaoee yoie eieae aio i?ioeoe?iaaee Ai?oana, eioi?ue a ?anoiie aanaaa oiiiyioe ooeiiina eae «o?aniiai ?eaioiiai, nei?aiiiai ec ?anoae a?o­aeo ?eaioiuo». Aey Yei ooeiiin — ioi?au ia o?aniia ?eaio­iia oioy au iioiio, ?oi ia aai i?eia?a ii?ii aieacaou iaei­oi?ua aeiioacu oai?ee iiciaiey. E, enoaoe, aua aii?in: ia ec ?anoae ee ooeiiina nei?aiu ana inoaeuiua ?eaioiua… A e?i­ia oiai, a eiuo eoeuoo?iuo neooaoeyo e a a?oaea enoi?e?aneea ia?eiau a?oaea ?eaioiua ieacuaaeenu a ia iaiaa cao?oaie­oaeuiie neooaoee, ?ai ooeiiin, noaa i?aaiaoii aeeoaeuiuo nii?ia i nianoaaiiie eaaioe?iinoe — aaeao oiai, ?oi a eoeuoo?­iie yioeeeiiaaee enneaaiaaoaeae aaiiua ?eaioiua ii?aio-oi ionoonoaiaaee. Oae neo?eeinu, iai?eia?, n iini?iaii, eiaaa aai oaeaae Ia?ei Iiei.  Aaei a oii, ?oi, iooaoanoaoy e enneaaoy a?oaea no?aiu, iu iieucoainy naiaai ?iaa «oiiiauie eieaaie». Ia oi ?oiau iu aiceee eo n niaie iian?ao a oece?aneii niunea, iaiaei iu iieucoainy o?a nei?eaoeiny a iaoae eoeuoo?a ii?aaaeaiiui i?aanoaaeaieai i ie?a. Cia?aiea yoeo «eiea» oaeiai, ?oi e?­aie oaiiiai, n eioi?ui noaeeeaaaony iooaoanoaaiiee, eioa?­i?aoe?oaony e iauyniyaony a oa?ieiao nei?eaoaainy aeaaiey ie?a10.  Oae, niaeanii n?aaiaaaeiaie o?aaeoee, aa?iiaeou auee oaa?aaiu, ?oi aaeii?iae nouanoao?o. Aaeii?iae aie?iu auee auaeyaaou eae no?ieiua e ia?iua aaeua eioaae n iaiei ?iaii aianoi iina. Iineieueo aaeii?iae a Aa?iia ia aiaeeenu, oi n?eoaeinu, ?oi iie iaeoa?o aaa-oi a yecioe?aneeo no?aiao. Iiyoiio-oi, eiaaa Ia?ei Iiei ioi?aaeeny a Eeoae, ii ii?aaa­eaiii ?ann?eouaae oaeaaou oai aaeii?iaia. Ii aue oi?aiaoai,  10 Ni.: Eco U. From Marco Polo to Leibniz: Stories of Intercultural Misun­derstanding, in Lectures at the Italian Academy for Advanced Studies in America. 1996 (http://www.columbia.edu/cu/casaitaliana/marco 5 e [nnueea ia iaia?o?aia [email protected] ]).  179  a ia eioaeeaeooaeii, iaiaei i?i?eoae iaiaei eiea e ciae iie­naiey aaeii?iaa. Ia ?aa ii ano?aoee ?eaioiuo, eioi?ua aua­eyaaee iioi?eie ia aaeii?iaia, oae eae iie eiaee iaei ?ia aianoi iina. Ii eaaioeoeoe?iaae eo eae aaeii?iaia, ii «ii­neieueo ii aue iaeaai e ?anoai, oi ia iia ia neacaou i?aaao ia yoeo ?eaioiuo»11. I?aaaa ?a caee??aeanu a oii, ?oi iie aua­eyaaee nianai eia?a, ?ai eo iienuaaea ouny?aeaoiyy aa?iiae­neay o?aaeoey.  Eaeie o?an! Ai-ia?auo, iie auee ia aaeuie, a ?a?iuie, o ieo auea oa?nou aoeaiea, e eo eaiu auee aieuoeie, eae o neiia. ?ia aue ?a?iui, a aieiaa auaeyaaea eae aieiaa aeeiai eaaaia. E yoe ?eaioiua aiana ia auee oaeeie ia?iuie, eaee­ie aie?iu auee auou aaeii?iae. Ia?ei Iiei aue i?aiu ?aci­?a?iaai: «N aeao caa?u aacia?aciue. Ia iioi?e iie ia oi, eae o ian eo iienuaa?o; ia noaioo iie iiaaaaaouny aaanoaaiieoa»12. Iaiaei ii ia iia neacaou, ?oi ii ano?aoee eaeeo-oi iaaaaiiuo ?eaioiuo: einoeieoeaii ii ioi?aanoaee eo n o?a ecaanoiui aio ii iienaieyi ia?acii. A oa?ieiao eiaieoeaiuo iaoe iu neacaee au, ?oi ii ?oeiaianoaiaaeny eiaieoeaiie iiaaeu?. Ii ieacaeny ?a?oaie «oiiiauo eiea». Ia naiii aaea oi, ?oi oae­aae Ia?ei Iiei, yaeyeinu iini?iaii.  Yei caaaaony aii?inii, eae iinooiee au Ia?ei Iiei, anee au aianoi Eeoay ii iai?aaeeny a Aano?aee? e oaeaae au oai ooeiiina, a eaeea oaeniiiie?aneea ?yau ii ioian au yoi ?e­aioiia (a neo?aa, anee au ii ana-oaee ?aoee, ?oi yoi ?eaioiia, a ia oeia?a, ia iaiai c?aiey)? Aoiaaony, ia oieuei ii, ii e aieaa oioa?aiiua iuneeoaee — Eaio eee Ie?n — eiaee au aieuoea i?iaeaiu n aai ii?aaaeaieai. Anee ii?ii ooaa??­aaou, ?oi a iaoai iiciaiee ie?a aeaaio? ?ieu ea?a?o naieiceniua i?ioannu, oi, neaaiaaoaeuii, ?a?u eaao i oii, eaeei ia?a­cii ?oanoaaiiua aaiiua acaeiiaaenoao?o n iiaaeyie aini?e­yoey (eiioaiooaeuiuie eee naiaioe?aneeie).  Ie?n oeacuaae ia oi, ?oi i?ioann iiciaiey iniiaai ia ia iaoae niiniaiinoe e eio?iniaeoee eee eiooeoee, a ia aeiioa­oe?aneii ?anno?aaiee, naycuaa?uai aiaoiea oaeou n i?aa­oanoao?uei ciaieai. A neo?aa n Ia?ei Iiei ia nouanoaiaaei ieeaeie ieaoiiianeie eaae iini?iaa, e ii ia nicaaaae ia?ac e iiiyoea iini?iaa ex novo, ii nicaae a?eeiea? ec o?a eiaa-  11 Eco U. From Marco Polo to Leibniz…  12 Eieaa Ia?ei Iiei. I.: Ainoaa?noaaiiia ecaaoaeunoai aaia?aoe?an­eie eeoa?aoo?u, 1955. N. 178.  180  oeony o iaai i?aanoaaeaiee e iiiyoee. Iiciaiea iini?iaa i?i­enoiaeei eae i?ioann eceiiaiiie aaaoeoee.  ?oi ?a oaeaae Ia?ei Iiei ia naiii aaea — i?a?aa ?ai neacaou, ?oi ii aeaae aaeii?iaia? Ii «oaeaae» ia?oi, ?oi aie?ii auei auou ?eaioiui. Eae i?aaeei, eniieucoy aeaaie «aeaaou», iu eiaai a aeao aayoaeuiinou iaoeo i?aaiia c?aiey, i?e?iaie iaoneiaeaiiue niinia ?oanoaaiiiai aini?eyoey. Oiaaa eae naieioeea e a?oaea nia?aiaiiua oai?ee aecoaeuiinoe ianoaeaa?o ia oii, ?oi i?ioann aini?eyoey n iaiaoiaeiinou? iiin?aaiaai eoeuoo?iuie eiiaaioeyie. I?iaeaia ninoieo a oii, ?oi, n ia­iie noi?iiu, iieiioa aini?eyoey iiae?aieyaony iaeiae enoia­iie aeaa?aiiie, eiioo?ii, eaaae (aaeii?iaa); n a?oaie noi?i­iu, iinea oiai eae Ia?ei Iiei eniieuciaae eaa? aaeii?iaa, ii oai ia iaiaa caee??ee, ?oi yoio aaeii?ia ia aaeue, a ?a?­iue, aiany oai naiui iaeioi?ua eciaiaiey a nai? ia?ae?io? aeiioaco. Ii?aio ii naaeae auaia i oii, ?oi yoi ?a?iia? E neacae ee ii yoi ai eee iinea i?aaiiei?aiey i oii, ?oi yoi, aie?ii auou, e anou aaeii?ia? E ii?aio, aa?a neacaa yoi, ii ana aua aa?ee a oi, ?oi yoi aaeii?ia, oioy ii e ia aaeue?13  Aey ioaaoa ia yoe aii?inu Yei eniieucoao ie?nianeia ii­iyoea Ia?ae?iinoe (oae «?a?iinou» iini?iaa aunooiaao eae aua ia a?oeeoee?iaaiiia ea?anoai), iiiyoa O?aoe?iinoe eae noa­aee oiicaee??aiee e auaia Ie?na i oii, ?oi aini?eyoea — yoi o?a naieicen e o?a aaaoeoey14. Ii oae?a aiaeee?oao e Eaioo, oaeoaeyy aaaaaiiia ei iiiyoea noaiu, eioi?ay a i?i­oanna iiciaiey i?aaoanoaoao oi?ie?iaaie? iiiyoey, i?aaoa­noaoao aa?aaeecaoee. Noaia io?a?aao aeaaiui ia?acii i?i­no?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiua ioiioaiey aini?eyoey. ?a?u eaao i oi?ia, e eiaiii a aecoaeuiii niunea15. Oae ?oi ?a i?ienoi­aeo, eiaaa iu aie?iu neiino?oe?iaaou noaio ?aiaa iaecaano­iiai iauaeoa?  13 Eco U. Kant, Peirce e l’ornitorinco, in Kant e L’ornitorinco. ?. 45.  14 Niaeanii Ie?no, «aaaoeoeaiia oiicaee??aiea iacaiaoii ae?aauaa­aony a ia?oaioeaiia no?aaiea aac eaeie au oi ie auei ?aoeie eeiee aaia?eaoee ia?ao ieie; eee a?oaeie neiaaie, iaoe ia?aua i?aaii­ei?aiey, ia?oaioeaiua no?aaiey aie?iu ?anniao?eaaouny eae e?ae­iee neo?ae aaaoeoeaiuo oiicaee??aiee, io eioi?uo iie ioee?a?o­ny oai, ?oi aanie?oii ia iiaaa?ony e?eoeea. Aaaoeoeaiay aiaaaea iinauaao ian eae aniuoea. Yoi iiiaio ica?aiey, oioy e aanuia ia­iaaa?iiai» (Peirce Ch. S. Perceptual Judgments, in Philosophical Wri­tings of Peirce. ?. 304).  15 Eco U. Kant, Pierce e l’ornitorinco. ?. 68.  181  Anee au Eaio ana-oaee ano?aoeeny n ooeiiinii, oi o iaai iiyaeeny au aiiieieoaeuiue noeioe aey ?aciuoeaiee i ni­caaiee noaiu ia iniiaa ?oanoaaiiuo aia?aoeaiee. Oioy a aai­iii neo?aa ?oanoaaiiua aia?aoeaiey ia niaeano?ony ie n iaiie ec o?a eia?ueony noai (eae ii?ii niaianoeou ee?a e eaiu n iyou? «iaeuoaie», n oa?nou? e oainoii aia?a?..).  Aaei, ii iiaie? Yei, caee??aaony a oii, ?oi, aii?aee ?an­no?aaieyi Eaioa, aa?aioey oiai, ?oi iaoe aeiioacu «oi?iu» (eee oioy au i?eaieaiu), ia ii?ao auou auaaaaia ec ai?ei?­iuo no?aaiee ?enoiai ?acoia, a iniiauaaaony ia enoi?e?an­eii, i?ia?anneaiii a?aiaiiii eiinainona, i?eiyoii aaiiui niiauanoaii16. O?ainoaiaaioaeuiia enoi?e?ii e aunooiaao eae ?acoeuoao i?ioanna aeneonnee, naeaeoee, io?eoaiey, eae niai­eoiiinou i?eiyouo eioa?i?aoaoee. Oi, ?oi inouanoaee Ie?n, e oi, io ?aai iooaeeeaaaony Yei, — yoi iiiuoea aao?ainoaiaaioaeecaoee i?ioanna iiciaiey.  Nouanoaoao iiiai eaoaai?ee, eniieucoaiuo aey io?a?aiey iinoaiaiiinoe e iiyoaiiinoe i?ioanna iiciaiey: noaia, i?ioi­oei, iiaaeu, noa?aioei, ia?ac e a?. Oai ia iaiaa nai i?ioann ca?i?aaiey e ioi?ieaiey aia?aoeaiee a iiciaaaoaeuio? noa­io aua ia iauyniai oaiaeaoai?eoaeuiui ia?acii. ?oiau oaeo­aeouny a yoo i?iaeaio, eo?oa ia?aou n aauae i?eau?iuo e iau­aaiiuo — oaeeo, iai?eia?, eae noie, niaaea, ?anoi?ai, n oai ?oiau a iineaao?uai i?iaiaeece?iaaou, eaeea icia?eaa?uea iaoaieciu anooia?o a ea?o i?e ano?a?a n iauaeoaie iaecaano­iuie (iini?ia, ooeiiin, eioaae — aey aooaeia, oaeaaaoeo eniaineeo caaiaaaoaeae).  I?aaeaii, ?oi ai anao yoeo neo?ayo naiui i?iaeaiaoe?iui ieacuaaaony ?acee?aiea nianoaaiii aini?eyoey e i?ioanna naieicena (eioa?i?aoaoee). Aooaee, oaeaaaoea eioaaae, aie­?iu auee neiino?oe?iaaou eiaieoeaiue oei eioaaeiinoe, ii ia iniiaa ?aai: caiaoa, oaaoa, oi?iu, ii?oieiae?aneeo eee iioi?iuo i?eciaeia? Neiynoaoe?aneee oa?aeoa? aini?eyoey ni­ioaaonoaoao oae?a ioeuoeiaaeeiinoe (iii?anoaaiiie iiin?a­aiaaiiinoe) eiaieoeaiiai oeia17. Naii niaie ?acoiaaony, ?oi eiaieoeaiue oei aua ia yaeyaony iiiyoeai18. Naieicen inoua-  16 Eco U. Kant, Peirce e L’ornitorinco. P. 79.  17 Ibid («Tipi cognitivi e contenuto nucleare»). ?. 109.  18 Enneaaiaaoaee Eua?neie A?oiiu o ioia?a?o, ?oi anee «?aoa?aio niaoeoe?ai e iaeaaaao ii?aaaeaiiuie oece?aneeie naienoaaie», oi oei, iai?ioea, — yoi eeann, iaaaeaiiue eeou eiioaiooaeuiuie  182  noaeyaony ia iniiaa aaiiuo aini?eyoey. Iaiaei aini?eyoea noa­iiaeony aicii?iui aeaaiaa?y oiio, ?oi iu eiino?oe?oai eiaieoeaiua oeiu, ?i?aa?ueany eae ?acoeuoao noeioee?o?­uaai aicaaenoaey ia ian iaoa?eaeuiuo iauaeoia e nouanoao?­ueo eoeuoo?iuo eiiaaioee19.  Enoiay ec neacaiiiai, neaaiaaei au ioiaoeou, ?oi aa-iaoo?aeecoy i?ioann aini?eyoey (oi anou oaeoe?anee ioi?aanoaeyy aai n naieicenii), Yei iaiaa anaai eioa?anoaony oeceieiae­?aneeie iaoaieciaie, o?anoao?ueie a oi?ie?iaaiee eiaieoea­iiai oeia. Iaeaieuoo? cia?eiinou caanu eiaao eioa?noauae­oeaiue oa?aeoa? eioa?i?aoaoee aaiiuo (a iiuoa) iauaeoia e eae yoio i?ioann io?a?aaony a nenoaiao ?ai?acaioaoee (aa?­aaeuiuo e aecoaeuiuo). Eiaieoeaiue oei ?i?aaaony ia ia in­iiaa aini?eyoey, a ec eoeuoo?iiai iiuoa eioa?i?aoaoi?a e aiin­eaanoaee ea?aao nai? ?ieu a aini?eyoee a?oaeo iauaeoia. Eia­?a aiai?y, eoeuoo?a caaaao niiniau aini?eyoey ie?a, a aeaaiea — yoi iaiaa anaai oeceieiae?aneee oaiiiai. Aini?eyoe? i?aa­oanoaoao ?aaioa iaoaai eiaieoeaiiai aiia?aoa e no?oeoo?a aiia?aoa eeiaaenoe?aneiai. Oi, ?oi Yei iacuaaao contenuto nucleare — nouiinoiia niaa??aiea, iaeay niaieoiiinou ee?­?aauo i?eciaeia iauaeoa, — oae?a ?acoeuoe?oao ec oe?eoee­?o?ueo a iauanoaa eioa?i?aoaoee.  A i?eioeia, iaaicii?ii ?aca?aie?eou eoeuoo?iua e «yi­ie?e?aneea» (oeceieiae?aneea) oaeoi?u, anee ?a?u eaao i ia­oaieea i?ioanna iiciaiey, aua e iioiio, ?oi i?e?iaa noeio­eia, aicaaenoao?ueo ia iaoe i?aaiu ?oanoa, oae?a aanuia i?i­aeaiaoe?ia. ?oi ii?ao auou i?e?iaiiai a iiiyoee e niiniaa ?ai?acaioaoee eeiaeiie ia?niaeoeau? Aa?a anee aiionoeou, ?oi n eaeie-oi oi?ee iauaeo ii?ao auou oaeaai ii?aaaeaiiui ia?acii (aiionoei, caanu iaee?anoaoao i?e?iaiue noeioe), oi n a?oaie oi?ee ii aoaao auaeyaaou eia?a (caanu aicieeaao ni­iiaiea: ia yaey?ony ee «i?e?iaiua noeioeu» eneonnoaaiiu­ie?). Ia yoii iniiaaiu ana oaoieee trompe-l’oeil20. Enoi?ey ?a  naienoaaie. Oei — yoi iuneeoaeuiue eiino?oeo, ?acoeuoao i?ioan­na eioaa?aoee, aai ooieoey ninoieo a oii, ?oiau aa?aioe?iaaou io­iioaiey yeaeaaeaioiinoe eee i?aia?aco?uaainy oi?aanoaa ia?ao ?aoa?aioii e icia?a?uei. (Ni.: Group ? «Iconism», in Advances in Visual Semiotics (ed. by Th. A. Sebeok, J. Umiker-Sebeok. Paris: Gruyter, 1994). ?. 31.)  19 Eco U. «Iconismo e ipoicone», in Kant e L’ornitorinco. ?. 336.  20 Ibid. ?. 312.  183  ooeiiina iieacaoaeuia a oii ioiioaiee, ?oi n iiiaioa ia?aie ano?a?e n iei e ai iiiaioa ii?aaaeaiey aai a iao?iuo oa?ie­iao (oi, ?oi anaie nae?an i?eiyoi eae nouiinoiia ii?aaaeaiea aaiiiai ?eaioiiai) i?ioei ainaiuaanyo eao aeneonnee ii ii­aiao i?eaieaiiai aey niiauanoaa aai eiaieoeaiiai oeia.  Ianeieuei ?acoeuoaoeaia iiiuoea Yei niaaeieou naieioeeo n yienoaiieiaeae? Ii?ai ee iu iinoaaeou oi?eo a ?anniio?a­iee iaicia?aiiie ei i?iaeaiu? A?ya ee (e n?anou?, a iaoai eeiaaenoe?aneii aiia?aoa anou niioaaonoao?uaa neioaene?aneia n?aanoai aey iaicia?aiey yecenoaioeaeuiie ioe?uoinoe — iii­aioi?ea). Eae au ie aue oaaaeoaeai Yei, a aaenoaeoaeuiinoe ana­aaa iaeaoony eiua niiniau «?aoaiey» i?iaeaiu niaa??aoaeu­iinoe ciaea e aai ioiioaiey e aiaoiaio ie?o. I?eioeieaeuiay ia?aoaaiinou yoie oaiu ia a iineaai?? i?a?aau iaoneiaeaia iaoae iaaicii?iinou? i?iaa?eou iiuoiui iooai eae «oecei-eiae?iinou» aini?eyoey, oae e aeeyiea ia iaai eiaieoeaiiai oeia, ?aaii eae e aaaeaaoiinou eeiaaenoe?aneie ea?oeiu ie?a ?aaeu­iiio iiei?aie? aauae, eai nai iiuo (aaiiua ?oanoaaiiiai ain­i?eyoey) iiaaa?aaaony niiiaie? e caaeneo io yienoaiieiae?an­eeo i?aaiinueie. «Auoea» eae oeeinioneay eaoaai?ey, eae eei­aaenoe?aneee oaiiiai inoaaony ?aaeuiinou? naieinoa?u, oiaaa eae iiaeeiiay ?aaeuiinou ii-i?a?iaio iaainyaaaia, eae au ia­?aaienaeuii yoi ie cao?aei. Ooiaaiaioaeuiay i?iaeaia icia?e­aaiey ?aai-eeai nouanoao?uaai ai e aia ycuea, aoao?e aaaii ?aoaia i?aeoe?anee, ia ii?ao auou oaaaeoaeuii iauyniaia ia oai?aoe?aneii o?iaia n?aanoaaie oiai ?a ycuea — iu ia ii?ai iieeioou i?aaaeu naieicena, ?aciuoeyy i aai enoi?ieea. Aii­?in i ia?aeeaeecia auoey, iuoeaiey e ycuea inoaaony ioe?u­oui, a naieicen — iaia?aie?aiiui. N oi?ee c?aiey a?oaeo ?a­coeuoaoia iiaiaiiai enneaaiaaiey ea?aony iiceoeaiui nai oaeo aica?auaiey naieioeee e i?iaeaiai aiinaieiaee — e oiio, n ?aai ia?eiaee Ieaoii e A?enoioaeu, oi?ioee?oy iniiaiua naieioe?aneea i?iaeaiu, e e ?aio iinea Ie?na naieioeea aieu­oa ia aica?auaeanu. Icia?aao ee yoi, ?oi naieioeea ieii?aoaeu­ii ?annoaeanu n iiceoeaeciii e naiiainoaoi?iinou? no?oeoo?a­eenoneie ia?aaeaiu, ia oo?aoea nianoaaiiua aenoeieeia?iua in­iiaaiey e iaoiaieiae?aneee iaoin? ?ac?aoai ee nii? ia?ao Ie?nii e Ninn??ii a iieuco iineaaiaai? Iiiaioi?ea. Aey na­iiai Yei ia?aoia io i?iaeaiu i?aaaeia eioa?i?aoaoee oaenoia e i?iaeaia i?aaaeia eioa?i?aoaoee ie?a auaeyaeo, ea?aony, aiieia anoanoaaiiui.  184  Caee??aiea  Eiaaa ni?eiy?o, aoia?o i ?eoaoaea.  Oiaa?oi Yei  Eiae?iaa anaai auei au, iaaa?iia, inoaaeou oaeno aac caee??a­iey — ii ?aciui i?e?eiai. E iioiio, ?oi yoi enneaaiaaiea ia yaeyaony no?iai iao?iui ie a niunea ycuea, ie a ieaia iaoiaa, ie oai aieaa n oi?ee c?aiey no?oeoo?u («caee??aiea» caanu ia iaycaoaeuii i?aaiieaaaao iaee?ea iiceoeaiuo auaiaia). E ii­oiio, ?oi, eae au iu ie noa?aeenu eaii?e?iaaou yiie?e?aneiai Aaoi?a, ii ana-oaee nouanoaoao e i?iaie?aao ienaou. A nayce n ?ai aaiiue oaeno ii?ii ?anniao?eaaou eae «i?iecaaaaiea-a-aae?aiee» eee «i?iecaaaaiea-n-ioe?uoui-oeiaeii», ?oi a ia­uai-oi niioaaonoaoao eca?aiiie iii? a naiii ia?aea no?aoa­aee oaenooaeuiie ieiee?ee. Oai ia iaiaa eia-eaeea ?aciuoea­iey ii iiaiao iaienaiiiai ana-oaee oioaeinu au auneacaou. I?a?aa anaai, ii?ii auei au iiiuoaouny i?aaainoeoeou iaei­oi?ua e?eoe?aneea caia?aiey.  Ia?aia caia?aiea, aa?iyoii, aoaao eanaouny iaiieiiou en­neaaiaaiey — iaeioi?uo ?eoaoaeae ?aci?a?oao ionoonoaea aia­eeca oaenooaeuiuo no?aoaaee a eeoa?aoo?iuo i?iecaaaaieyo Yei. Aaenoaeoaeuii, ana o?e ?iiaia eoaeuyineiai ienaoaey oiiie­ia?ony ieiioiaii eee ii iiaiao, ii ie iaei ec ieo oae e ia noae iauaeoii i?enoaeuiiai aieiaiey a yoie eieaa. I?e?eiu i?inou: ?iiaiu auee iioaeeeiaaiu ia ?onneii, oe?iei ia­no?aaaiu (a iacaaeneiinoe io eo ?aaeuiiai oniaoa) e ?acia?a­iu aieiaoaeuiuie e?eoeeaie ai iaeu?aeoeo aaoaeae. Ia?a­neacuaaou einaeoa e?eoeeia — aaei iaaeaaiaa?iia, iaiayca­oaeuiia e o?oaiaieia (iauai iaienaiiiai i?aauoaao ana iuneeiua a?aieou), a iiiuoaouny i?aanoaaeou nianoaaiio? oi?eo c?aiey, eaii?e?oy e?eoeeo aiiaua, a eaeie-oi ia?a cia­?eei au ecia?aoaou aaeineiaa. E oiio ?a, eieu nei?i oaia aeia?eioa?i?aoaoee (eee i?aaaeia eioa?i?aoaoee) auea caya­eaia eae aiieiaioiay i?iaeaia anaai enneaaiaaiey, oi nicaa­iea aua iaiie eioa?i?aoaoee e a iniaaiiinoe eioa?i?aoaoee eciu?aiiie iiaei au ?anniao?eaaouny eae «eeoua aiau ia ?o­?o? iaeuieoo». Iano?aaiea eeoa?aoo?iuo oaeaioia Yei ia-  185  iuneeii aac aiaeeca oaiiiaia eo ?aoaioee, aac ?acaiai?a ia ioiioaieyo ia?ao ?iiaiaie, ?eoaoaeyie e e?eoeeaie, aac en­neaaiaaiey «nenoaiu caaca» e «aanonaeea?ia», aia eiioaenoa aen­eonnee i iinoiiaa?ienoneie eeoa?aoo?a, ianniaie eoeuoo?a e o. a., ?oi oaaei au ian aaeaei a noi?iio io enneaaoaiiai aii?i­na. Nouanoaoao e aua iaia iaiaeiaa?iay i?e?eia: eeoa?aoo?­iua i?iecaaaaiey, noaaoea iauaeoii niaoeaeuiiai eco?aiey, aie?iu i?a?aa anaai ioaieaaouny ii eo ooai?anoaaiiui ain­oieinoaai — iaoia aoeaaeenoneiai i?i?oaiey eae iiene aiaei­aee (iai?eia?, ia?ao ?iiaiii Eiy ?icu e oi?eie c?aiey Oi­aa?oi Yei ia n?aaiaaaeiao? naieioeeo eee ?a ia?ao ?iiaiii Iayoiee Ooei e i?iaeaiie e?eoeee iainaieioecia) caanu ia oianoai, oioy yoi o?a aaeaeinu e iaiaiie?aoii1. Aaconeiaii, ia??aoeaiue aiaeec ea?aiai ec yoeo ?iiaiia, ?aaii eae e eo «iinoiiaa?ienoneinou»eee «naieioe?iinou», iiaoo noaou eioa­?aniie oaiie aey enneaaiaaiey, ii a a?oaii ianoa e a a?oaia a?aiy.  Ia o?aaoao aieacaoaeunoa oio oaeo, ?oi ?eoaoaeu ?iiaiia Yei e ?eoaoaeu aai aeaaaie?aneeo o?oaia — yoi ia iaii e oi ?a «eeoi», ia iaii e oi ?a ?aoaioeaiia niiauanoai. Oi?ae a iaiieiioa ii?ao i?icao?aou e ni noi?iiu ?eoaoaeae, ioiiny­ueony ei aoi?ie — iao?iie — aoaeoi?ee. I?a?aa anaai iioi­io, ?oi ie Oai?ey naieioeee, ie Naieioeea e oeeinioey ycu­ea, ie Ionoonoao?uay no?oeoo?a ia iaoee naiaai iieiiai io?a?aiey a aaiiie eieaa, ii e?aeiae ia?a io?a?aiey nenoa­iaoe?aneiai. Yoi ainoaoi?ii aaniiue a?aoiaio, ii ii?aaaaie­ai caanu neo?eo auai? oaiu. Iaiy eioa?aniaaei a aaiiii neo­?aa ia oieuei e ia noieuei oi?ie?iaaiea naieioe?aneie oai­?ee Yei, neieuei i?iaeaia eioa?i?aoaoee — neaiciay oaia anao ?aaio Yei. Iiae caaa?ae yaeyeinu iieacaou ?acee?iua niiniau aa iano?aaiey: a nianoaaiii naieioe?aneii ee??a — eae i?iaeaiu naieicena eee a aieaa oe?ieii iauai?eiyoii niunea — eae oaiiiaia enoieeiaaiey oaenoia. I?e yoii aa?­ii auei enneaaiaaou ?acee?ea o?aaeoee iiieiaiey yoie i?i­aeaiu (io Oiiu Aeaeineiai ai Ie?na e Aa?oa), a oae?a ioee­?ea oaenoia aecoaeuiuo — aoaeiaecoaeuiuo (eeii, ?eaiienu, a?oeoaeoo?a, oaeaaeaaiea) io aa?aaeuiuo (eeoa?aoo?a). I?aaea­ii, ?oi ooiaaiaioaeuiia ?acee?ea, ii?aaaey?uaa niaoeoeeo ea?aie ec yoeo «oi?i» oaenooaeuiinoe, i?aaiieaaaao eae ?ac-  1 Ni., iai?eia?: Gritti J. Umberto Eco. Paris: Editions Universitaires, 1991.  186  ee?iua niiniau aini?eyoey e eioa?i?aoaoee, oae e ?acee?iua niiniau iauyniaiey yoeo oaiiiaiia n naieioe?aneie oi?ee c?aiey (nea?ai, iiiyoea eeiie?aneiai ciaea — i?eioeieaeuii aa?iay naieioe?aneay i?iaeaia — ioiineony aeaaiui ia?acii e eco?aie? aecoaeuiie eiiioieeaoee, oiaaa eae eiiaaioee eei­aaenoe?aneiai ciaea iiaoo auou ?anniio?aiu ia iaoa?eaea ee­oa?aoo?u). Neiaii, i?iaeaia eioa?i?aoaoee ia iiaea auou naa­aaia e naieioeea e oieuei e iae, a i?iaeaia iino?iaiey naiie naieioe?aneie oai?ee, eioi?ie Yei oaaeee iiiai aieiaiey a ?aciuo ?aaioao, aiiaua ea?aony a yoie nayce ia eia?uae io­iioaiey e nouanoao aii?ina.  Aoi?ia caia?aiea ii?ao aicieeioou ii iiaiao eieea?iinoe aaiiiai enneaaiaaiey — «neeoeii iiiai iio». Eciaeeea eiai e iacaaiee, a oae?a ?aciiia?acea cao?aaeaaaiuo oai e ia anaaaa yenieeoeoiay eiaeea ia?aoiaa io iaiie oaiu e a?oaie aaenoaeoaeuii iiaoo nouanoaaiii cao?oaiyou aini?eyoea eie­ae. Ii, ai-ia?auo, aey ?eoaoaeae Yei iiaiaiay «ie?ioea» ia aoaao auaeyaaou no?aiii eee iai?eaaiii — yioeeeiiaaeci Yei e ?aciinoi?iiiinou aai eioa?ania oi?ioi ecaanoiu. Ecaa?aou iiaiaiie iicae?iinoe, eiaaa ?a?u eaao eiaiii ia Yei, i?aeoe­?anee iaaicii?ii — ana ?a aai oaenou i?aiu ioee?a?ony io oaenoia Oaeaaaaa?a eee Ia?ei-Iiioe: aey i?ioeaieeia iiaia­iiai noeey iuoeaiey yoi aoaao auaeyaaou eae aua iaei a?ao­iaio «i?ioea», aey noi?iiieeia oaeay no?aoaaey iea?aony an­oanoaaiiui i?iaoeoii iinoiiaa?ienoneie ia?aaeaiu iuoea­iey e ienuia. Ni naiae noi?iiu, y oioaea au eeou caiaoeou, ?oi eioa?oaenooaeuiinou, eioi?o? ?ieai Aa?o a S/Z n?aaiee ni nei?iie ia?oeoo?ie, a aaiiii neo?aa iaecaa?ia, a «neeo­eii iiiai iio» auou ia ii?ao, anee ?a?u eaao i «oi?ioi oai­ia?e?iaaiiii eeaae?a», eaeiaui ii?ii n?eoaou i?iecaaaaiey Oiaa?oi Yei.  Iiaa?oiinoiinou — neaao?uaa e eiae?anee auoaea?uaa ec i?a?uaouaai aicii?iia caia?aiea (ii?ao auou aa?aniaaii eae aaoi?o yoie eieae, oae e naiiio Yei). Ioaao ia iiaiaio? e?eoeeo o?a i?icao?ae ?oou auoa, oai ia iaiaa aai ii?ii ?ac?ie?iaaou. Yoi i?iaeaia naiaai e?oaa ?eoaoaeae e aaeii­iuoeaiieeia. Aey oao, eiio i?aaie?anee aee?a Oaeaaaaa?, Ia?ei-Iiioe eee Aonna?eu, i?iaeaiaoeea, noeeu, a ?aaii e nii­nia ienuia Oiaa?oi Yei, aaconeiaii, ea?oony iai?eaieaiu­ie. «Ooo nae?aeuiiai ie?a» e oi?ea. Iaiaei ii?ii ia yoi acaeyioou e eia?a. Ai-ia?auo, ca «iiaa?oiinoiinou» ?anoi i?e-  187  ieia?o i?inoioo, oi anou niiniaiinou ynii eceaaaou naie iun­ee eee ?anno?aaou i nei?iuo iaoa?eyo, ?oi niaa?oaiii ia icia?aao iaecaa?iie ?aaoeoee, nie?aiey oaiu e iaoina. Yei, ii?aeoe, iaei ec iaiiiaeo aaoi?ia, eioi?ue iaeaaaao yoei aa?ii. Ai-aoi?uo, iiaa?oiinoiinou eiiaaa annioee?oaony n ae­eaoaioeciii, oi anou iaciaieai i?iaeaiu e, eae neaanoaea, ia­niiniaiinou? aa ?aoeou, a oae?a n ?aca?inaiiinou? eioa?ania e iaoiaieai caaa?oaou ia?aoia. Ie iaia ec yoeo ?a?o ia i?eno­ua Yei — enneaaiaaoaeu, ia?aeeaeuii caieiaaoeeny ianeieu­eeie oaiaie a oa?aiea 40 eao, ii ii?aaaeaie? ia ii?ao auou aeeaoaioii, a ?aciiia?acea eioa?ania e oyaa e yenia?eiaioe­?iaaie? ia a?aieoao eioaeeaeooaeuiuo aeneo?nia — yoi aaei­noaaiiay no?aoaaey nouanoaiaaiey aey anao, eoi ?aeaao auou ioe?uoui e ia?aenoeieeia?iiio aeaeiao e e aeaeiao o?aae­oee. A-o?aoueo, iia eiooeoeaiia iuouaiea caee??aaony a oii, ?oi Yei, eae ieeoi a?oaie, auou ii?ao, yaeyaony ?aeiaaeii «nia?aiaiiui» a iieiii niunea yoiai neiaa, enneaaiaaoaeai, eioi?ue ia oieuei niaa??aoaeuii, ii e noeeenoe?anee, aa?a oeceieiae?anee oeaaeeaaao aoo yiioe, iiieiay, ?oi oae ienaou, eae ienaee oeeinioneea eee iao?iua oaenou a XIX aaea eee aa?a a ia?aea XX, o?a iaaicii?ii — ca iiaa?oiinoiinou ii?ii i?eiyou «iiao? ynoaoeeo oaenooaeuiinoe» eee aeia?oaenooaeu­iinou eiiiu?oa?iie oeaeeecaoee (eae au iia ie iacuaaeanu — «iicae?iay» eee iinoiiaa?ienoneay eoeuoo?a eee eae-oi aua). Enoaoe, i iinoiiaa?iecia — ianiio?y ia aaiaeuiinou naiiai oa?ieia, yoa ia?aaeaia ii?ao iai auou iieacia aua ?ac: aneaa ca O?aa?eeii A?aeieniiii, iienuaa?uei iinoiiaa?ieci eae oo?aoo aeoaeiu, eae eoeuoo?o eiea?a e neioeye?oia, eae oe­cio?aie?aneia nouanoaiaaiea ia eeiaaenoe?aneie iiaa?oiin­oe, iu iiaee au noi?ioee?iaaou iiaia iiieiaiea «iiaa?oii­noiinoe» — iai?eia?, eioa?i?aoe?iaaou aa eae niaeanea n yienoaiieiaeae iinoiiaa?ia.  Ionoonoaea e?eoe?aneie aenoaioee, eee oaia Aaoi?a a aaiiii oaenoa. Aiiaua aiai?y, n ionoonoaeai e?eoe?aneie aen­oaioee o ian aaaii o?a iaae?aaaony e?ecen — n oao naiuo ii?, eae yaoaieciu e eiio?aaaiaiua iaoiau i?ioaneeaaiey caiaaiuo oai?ee ia?anoaee auou ianouiie iaiaoiaeiinou? ioa­?anoaaiiie iaoee oi anou aac iaeiai 10 eao. A oneiaeyo oioaeu­iiai aeeoaoa ia?enenonei-eaieineie oeeinioee e?eoe?aneay aenoaioey iia?acoiaaaeanu naiei iacaaieai, aa?a anee aian­oi e?eoeee a oaenoa oae aaoaeuiue ?acai? eiioaioee, au?a?a-  188  ?uee, nei?aa, iieiia niaeanea aaoi?a n e?eoeeoaiie ei ia?a­aeaiie. Iineieueo yiioa «ooieeia no?oeoo?iiai ineoiaiaee­ca» e «e?eoeee ao??oaciuo eiioaioee ?aeiaaea» ieiiaaea, iinoieueo aii?in i e?eoeea yaii oo?aoee nai? aeooaeuiinou. Yoi, nei?aa, i?iaeaia nianoaaiiie oi?ee c?aiey. Oi?aony aa­?eou, ?oi oaeiaay a aaiiii oaenoa ana ?a i?enoonoaoao — ii e?aeiae ia?a, ianoieuei, ianeieuei yoi aiioneaaony ?ai?ii enneaaiaaiey, ?acai?a?eaa?uaainy aie?oa iaiiai aaoi?a. Oai aieaa, ?oi a no?iai naieioe?aneii niunea ia ii?ao auou i?i­ecaaaaiey, a eioi?ii ionoonoaiaaea au oi?ea c?aiey. Iaainoa­oi?iinou eee iaiieiioa ?anniio?aiey oai?ee Oiaa?oi Yei caanu i?aanoaao eae ?aeaiea aaoi?a aaiiiai oaenoa auaiai?eouny ii aiieia ii?aaaeaiiui i?iaeaiai, ia caauaay i aeiiaieea, eie­oee?iaaaoai ?aciuoeaiea ii iiaiao, a oae?a ianea?aaynu ?aa­eie aicii?iinou? iuooeou naay e aaoi?ii, e ?eoaoaeai a ia­iii eeoa.  189  Aeaeeia?aoey iniiaiuo ?aaio Oiaa?oi Yei1  1956 — Il problema estetico in San Tommaso (Torino: Edizioni di Filosofia)  // problema estetico in Tommaso d’Aquino (aoi?ia, iaiiaeaiiia ecaaiea; Milano: Bompiani, 1970); aiae. ia?aaia: The Aesthetics of Thomas Aquinas (Cambridge: Harvard U.P., 1988).  1959 — Sviluppo dell’estetica medievale (Milano: Marzorati); Arte e bellezza nell’estetica medievale (aoi?ia, iaiiaeaiiia ecaaiea; Milano: Bompiani, 1987)  Aiae. ia?aaia: Art and Beauty in the Middle Ages (London-New Haven: Yale U.P., 1985).  1962 — Opera aperta (Milano: Bompiani); aiae. ia?aaia: The Open Work ‘ (Cambridge: Harvard U.P., 1989 revised).  1963 — Diario minimo (Milano: Mondadori), (iaiiaeaiiia ecaaiea; Milano: Mondadori, 1975); aiae. ia?aaia: Misreadings (London: Cape and New York: Harcourt 1993).  1964 — Apocalittici e integrati (Milano: Bompiani) (iaiiaeaiiia ecaaiea, Milano: Bompiani, 1977); aiae. ia?aaia: Apocalypse Postponed (Bloomington: Indiana U.P., 1994).  1965 — Le poetiche di Joyce (Milano: Bompiani); aiae. ia?aaia The Aesthetics of Chaosmos: The Middle Ages of James Joyce (London: Hutchinson and Cambridge: Harvard U.P., 1989).  1968 — La struttura assente (Milano: Bompiani). 1968 — La definizione dell’arte (Milano: Mursia). 1971 — Le forme del contenuto (Milano: Bompiani). 1971 — Il segno (Milano: Isedi). 1973 — Beato di Lebana (Milano: F. M. Ricci).  1 I?eaiaeiay ie?a aeaeeia?aoey, aaconeiaii, ia yaeyaony naiie iieiie e en?a?iuaa?uae (a ?anoiinoe, caanu ia i?aanoaaeaiu iii­ai?eneaiiua noaoue Oiaa?oi Yei, ioaeeeiaaaoeany ia ?aciuo ycu­eao e a ?acee?iuo ecaaieyo), iaiaei iia aaao i?aanoaaeaiea ia in­iiaiuo aaoi?neeo e ?aaaeoe?iaaiiuo eieaao Oiaa?oi Yei (n na?aae­iu 1950 ai eiioa 1990-o aa.). A aaiio? aeaeeia?aoe? auee aee??a­iu eae eoaeuyineea, oae e aiaeiycu?iua ecaaiey, iineieueo iaeioi­?ua ?aaiou ia?aiia?aeuii ioaeeeiaaeenu ia aiaeeeneii e eeou ii­caiaa auee ia?aaaaaiu ia eoaeuyineee. Yoi ?aoaiea i?aanoaaeyaony oae?a ii?aaaaiiui e a nayce n oai, ?oi eoaeuyineea e ca?oaa?iua ecaaiey eiea Yei nouanoaaiii ioee?a?ony a?oa io a?oaa (aiaeiycu?­iua ecaaiey a yoii niunea iniaaiii ?ai?acaioaoeaiu eae case study).  190  1975 — Trattato di semiotica generale (Milano: Bompiani).  1976 — A Theory of Semiotics (Bloomington: Indiana U.P., and London: Macmillan, 1977) (I?eaeiaeuiay aiaeeeneay aa?ney «O?aeoaoa»).  1976 — Il superuomo di massa (Milano: Cooperativa Scrittori) (iaiiaeaiiia ecaaiea; Milano: Bompiani, 1978).  1977 — Dalla periferia dell’impero (Milano: Bompiani). 1977 — Come si fa una tesi di laurea (Milano: Bompiani).  1979 — The Role of the Reader (Bloomington: Indiana U.P. and London: Hutchinson, 1981). Eieeaeoey ynna, iioaeeeiaaiiuo ?aiaa a eieaao: Opera aperta, Apocalittici e integrati, Forme del contenuto, Lector in fabula, Il Superuomo di massa.  1979 — Lector in fabula (Milano: Bompiani).  1980 — Il nome della rosa (Milano: Bompiani) (eiiiaioe?iaaiiia ecaaiea, ed. by Costantino Marmo. Milano: Edizioni Scolastiche Fabbri, 1990); aiae. ia?aaia: The Name of the Rose (New York: Harcourt, 1983, London: Seeker & Warburg, 1983).  1983 — Postille al nome della rosa (auei aee??aii a «ea?iaiiia» eoaeuyi­neia ecaaiea 1984 aiaa); aiae. ia?aaia: Postscript to The Name of the Rose (New York: Harcourt, 1984).  1984 — Semiotica e filosofia del linguaggio (Einaudi: Torino); aiae. ia?aaia: Semiotics and the Philosophy of Language (Bloomington: Indiana U.P., 1984).  1985 — Sugli specchi e altri saggi (Milano: Bompiani).  1988 — Il pendolo di Foucault (Milano: Bompiani); aiae. ia?aaia: Foucault’s Pendulum (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Jovanovich, 1989; London: Seeker and Warburg, 1989).  1990 — I limiti dell’interpretazione (Milano: Bompiani); aiae. ia?aaia: The Limits of Interpretation (Bloomington: Indiana U.P.,1990).  1991 — Stelle e stellette (Genova: Melangolo).  1992 — Il secondo diario minimo (Milano: Bompiani). aiae. ia?aaia: How to Travel with a Salmon and Other Essays (New York: Hacourt Brace and London: Seeker, 1994 partial).  1992 — Interpretation and Overinterpretation (Cambridge U. P.).  1993 — La ricerca della lingua perfetta nella cultura europea (Bari: Laterza); aiae. ia?aaia: The Search for the Perfect Language (Oxford: Blackwell, 1995).  1994 — Six Walks in the Fictional Woods (Cambridge: Harvard U.P.); eoaeu­yineia ecaaiea: Sei passeggiate nei boschi narrativi (Milano: Bompiani, 1994).  1994 — L’isola del giorno prima (Milano: Bompiani); aiae. ia?aaia: The Island of the Day Before (New York: Harcourt Brace and London: Seeker and Warburg, 1995).  1997 — Kant e l’ornitorinco (Milano: Bompiani).  191  Ecaaiey, auiouaiiua a niaaoi?noaa e iia ?aaaeoeae Oiaa?oi Yei  1961 — Storia figurata delle invenzioni (Milano: Bompiani) Edited by U. Eco and G. B. Zorzoli; aiae. ia?aaia: 1. The Picture History of Inventions (New York: Macmillan, 1963) 2. The Pictorial History of Inventions (London: Weidenfeld, 1962).  1965 — Il caso Bond (Milano: Bompiani). Edited by O. Del Buono and U. Eco; aiae. ia?aaia: The Bond Affair (London: Macdonald, 1966).  1966 — La bomba e il generale (Milano: Bompiani) Illustrated by Eugenio Carmi (iaiiaeaiiia ecaaiea, 1988).  1966 — I tre cosmonauti (Milano: Bompiani) Illustrated by Eugenio Carmi  (revised edition, 1988).  1969 — L’arte come mestiere (Milano: Bompiani) Edited by U. Eco.  1969 — I sistemi di segni e lo strutturalismo sovietico (Milano: Bompiani) Edited by U. Eco and R. Faccani.  1969 — L’Industria della cultura (Milano: Bompiani) Edited by U. Eco.  1971 — I fumetti di Iai (Bari: Laterza) Edited by G. Nebiolo, U. Eco and J. Chesneaux; aiae. ia?aaia: The People’s Comic Book: Red Women’s Detachment, Hot on the Trail, and Other Chinese Comics.  1972 — Cent’anni dopo. Il ritorno dell’intreccio (Milano: Almanacco Bompiani) Edited by U. Eco and C. Sughi.  1972 — I pampini bugiardi (Rimini: Guaraldi) Edited by U. Eco and M. Bonazzi.  1972 — Estetica e teoria dell’informazione (Milano: Bompiani) Edited by U. Eco.  1979 — A Semiotic Landscape (The Hague: Mouton) Edited by S. Chatman, U. Eco and J.M. Klinkenberg. Proceedings of the First Congress of IASS-AIS, Milano, 1974.  1983 — The Sign of Three: Peirce, Holmes, Dupin (Bloomington: Indiana University Press) Edited by U. Eco and T.A. Sebeok; eoaeuyineee ia?aaia: Il segno dei tre (Milano: Bompiani 1983).  1988 — Meaning and Mental Representations (Bloomington: Indiana U.P.) Edited by U. Eco, M. Santambrogio and ?. Violi.  1989 — On the Medieval Theory of Signs (Amsterdam: Benjamins) Edited by U. Eco and Costantino Marmo.  1992 — Gli gnomi di Gnu (Milano: Bompiani) With Weugenio Carmi.  192  Umberto Eco: the paradoxes of interpretation  Summary  This book draws on semiotic conception of the well-known Italian semiotician, philosopher and writer Umberto Eco. He is one of the most significant thinkers of the late 20th century and his influence on the current situation in the humanities is unquestionable: he introduced and elaborated a number of very important topics and concepts for aesthetics, theory of semiotics, reception theories, philosophy of language, postmodernism ( such as: «the open work», «apocalyptic and integrated intellectuals», «the triple articulation of cinematic code», serial aesthetics, «textual competence», etc.). Given the fact that very few theoretical texts of Umberto Eco were translated into Russian it is not surprisingly that he has got a reputation of highly successful novellist ( a sort of ‘Guru’ of postmodernism) while his theoretical achievements remain obscure (in this country). Therefore, the main task for the author of this book was to introduce to Russian-speaking audience ‘another’ Eco — Eco-semiotician and philosopher (Eco-writer was left ‘outside’ the text). The variety of his research interests ranges from medieval philosophy to contemporary visual culture; his «world» is a universe where Thomas Aquinas neighbours Peirce and James Bond; and it is hardly possible to tackle all the topics he deals with in one single volume.This is why the problem of «interpretation» ( and/or semiosis ) was taken as a key issue that seems to be the most consistent, highly elaborated and virtually omnipresent concept in his works and that allows us to walk easily through his ‘narrative woods’ following the thread of investigation.  The author explores theoretical and cultural backgrounds, influences, complex and fruitful relations, the dialogue between Umberto Eco and European intellectual tradition. The inner evolution of Umberto Eco’s conception and its major theoretical innovations are articulated through and related with French poststructuralism, medieval studies, theories of communications and information, the discourse of European avant-garde and neoavant-garde, Moscow-Tartu semiotic school, postmodern paradigm, literary theories of reception, visual studies. The following issues have been analysed in the text: the relations between language, representation and cultural  193  universe — the nature of semiosis; Eco’s epistemological «pessimism» and «uncertainty» (based on the critique of structuralism and the very notion of ‘structure’); the «ontology» of Umberto Eco in the context of contemporary scientific theories (philosophy of Chaos, sinergetics and the conception of «open work»); Peircean and Saussurian influences on the semiotic methodology of Umberto Eco; the dialectics of text-reader relations in his works — from interpretation to overinterpretation; ‘visual semiotics’ of Umberto Eco and contemporary film studies; Umberto Eco and medieval studies: reconstructing the logic of medieval culture; Scholasticism and structuralism: on two ‘homological’ models of knowledge; the ‘philosophy’ of fakes and forgeries: Eco on hyperreality of contemporary culture; from «open work» to «open semiotics»: the basic notions and principles of Eco’s semiotic theory (dictionary/ encyclopedy; model Q; unlimited semiosis; the theory of iconicity; denotation-connotation, etc.); Eco and contemporary art: from kitsch to the aesthetics of postmodernism — the strategies of reception.  Contents: Instead of Preface: «better late than never». — In Search of Alternative Eco-logy. — Intoxicated Reader of Umberto Eco. — «Little» and «Big» Middle Ages of Umberto Eco. — World-Text Dialectics in Medieval Philosophy. — Structuralism from the Point of view of Scholasticism. — Reports from the Global Village. — Apology of Aesthetics of Serial Forms. — Travelling through Hyperreality with Umberto Eco. — Paradoxes of Visual Semiotics.  — Poetics of Open Work. — Philosophy of Chaos: The «Ontology» of Umberto Eco and Scientific Picture of the World. — The Gutenberg’s Galaxy in the Age of Internet. — Semiology as an Adventure? — Unlimited Semiosis and the Limits of Interpretation.  — Genealogy of the Lector in Fabula. — Common Sense Against Overinterpretation. — Model Reader and Model Author — Rendez­vous in the «Fictional Woods». — Kant and Platypus… in Epistemological Thickets. — Conclusion.  194  oeacaoaeu  aaaoeoey 74, 181  aaaiaa?a 53-54, 63, 93-94, 97, 99  aaoi? 57, 68-70, 96-97, 99, 109, 113, 124-127, 130, 133-135, 138-142, 145, 149-151, 153, 156-157, 159-160, 165, 168, 185, 187-189  — ia?acoiaue 163-166  — yiie?e?aneee 12, 18, 20, 21— 22, 34-35, 158, 160, 163, 170  Aai?ii, Oaiai? 41, 42, 45, 47, 48  Aeey, Aeuoiin 100, 152  Ainaeui Eaioa?aa?eeneee 27  A?enoioaeu 21, 23, 24, 25, 30, 33, 34, 35, 61, 79, 114, 139, 184  A?ioaei, ?oaieuo 88  a?oeeoeyoey 78, 82-83, 90  Aa?o, ?ieai 8, 9, 10-11, 35, 41, 43, 45, 85, 114-115, 118, 121, 131, 141, 171, 186-187  Aaiaaieno, Yieeu 10, 122  Aaiuyiei, Aaeuoa? 41, 55  Aa??, Iiyeu 88  Aia?eey?, ?ai 62-64, 66-67  Ai?aoyee, Ayaea 144  Ai?oan, Oina Eoen 9, 15, 16, 17, 74, 87, 98, 122, 163, 179  A?oe-?ioc, E?enoei 18, 22, 27, 154  Aoo, Oyei 141-142  Aaea?e, Iieu 140, 156  aicii?iue ie? 65, 117, 129, 166, 168, 178  aa?iaoeci 140, 155-156  aeia?eioa?i?aoaoey 14, 16, 17, 20, 22, 31, 80, 123-124, 144-145, 148, 154, 157, 161-162, 185  aeia??aaeuiinou 14, 62-65, 114  aeia?oaeno 106, 108, 131  aiinoeoeci 154, 156

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